Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main structural component of the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria and has diverse immunostimulatory and procoagulant effects. Even though LPS is well described for its role in the pathology of sepsis, considerable evidence demonstrates that LPS-induced signalling and immune dysregulation are also relevant in the pathophysiology of many diseases, characteristically where endotoxaemia is less severe. These diseases are typically chronic and progressive in nature and span broad classifications, including neurodegenerative, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases. This Review reappraises the mechanisms of LPS-induced signalling and emphasises the crucial contribution of LPS to the pathology of multiple chronic diseases, beyond conventional sepsis. This perspective asserts that new ways of approaching chronic diseases by targeting LPS-driven pathways may be of therapeutic benefit in a wide range of chronic inflammatory conditions.
- Chronic inflammation
- Noncommunicable diseases