The design of future energy systems requires the efficient use of all available renewable resources. Biomass can complement variable renewable energy sources by ensuring energy system flexibility and providing a reliable feedstock to produce renewable fuels. We identify biomass gasification suitable to utilise the limited biomass resources efficiently. In this study, we inquire about its role in a 100% renewable energy system for Denmark and a net-zero energy system for Europe in the year 2050 using hourly energy system analysis. The results indicate bio-electrofuels, produced from biomass gasification and electricity, to enhance the utilisation of wind and electrolysis and reduce the energy system costs and fuels costs compared to CO2-electrofuels from carbon capture and utilisation. Despite the extensive biomass use, overall biomass consumption would be higher without biomass gasification. The production of electromethanol shows low biomass consumption and costs, while Fischer-Tropsch electrofuels may be an alternative for aviation. Syngas from biomass gasification can supplement biogas in stationary applications as power plants, district heat or industry, but future energy systems must meet a balance between producing transport fuels and syngas for stationary units. CO2-electrofuels are found complementary to bio-electrofuels depending on biomass availability and remaining non-fossil CO2 emitters.
- Biomass gasification
- Syngas for power generation