The nordic nutrition recommendations 2022 – handbook for qualified systematic reviews

Erik Kristoffer Arnesen, Jacob Juel Christensen, Rikke Andersen, Hanna Eneroth, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Anne Høyer, Eva Warensjö Lemming, Helle Margrete Meltzer, Þórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Inga Þórsdóttir, Ursula Schwab, Ellen Trolle, Rune Blomhoff*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review

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Background: Systematic reviews (SRs) constitute a major part of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNRs). The step-by-step procedure used to develop SRs has evolved considerably over time and is often tailored to fit the exposure and outcomes in focus. Objective: To describe a detailed procedure for developing qualified SRs commissioned by the NNR2022 project. Design: Scrutinizing procedures of recent SRs commissioned by leading national food and health authorities or international food and health organizations. Results: The following eight steps must be included when developing qualified SRs for the NNR2022 project: 1) define research question, 2) protocol development, 3) literature search, 4) screening and selection of studies, 5) data extraction, 6) assessing risk of bias, 7) synthesis and grading of total strength of evidence, and 8) reporting according to certain standards. Discussion: This guide is based on the guidelines developed for the fifth edition of NNR but includes some important new domains in order to adhere to more recent, authoritative standards. Conclusion: All qualified SRs in the NNR2022 project will follow the protocol described here.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4404
JournalFood and Nutrition Research
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Dietary reference values
  • Evidence-based nutrition
  • Food-based dietary guidelines
  • National food and health authorities
  • Nordic and Baltic countries
  • Nutrient recommendations
  • Systematic reviews

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