The Modular X- and Gamma-Ray Sensor (MXGS) of the ASIM Payload on the International Space Station

Nikolai Østgaard*, Jan E. Balling, Thomas Bjørnsen, Peter Brauer, Carl Budtz-Jørgensen, Waldemar Bujwan, Brant Carlson, Freddy Christiansen, Paul Connell, Chris Eyles, Dominik Fehlker, Georgi Genov, Pawel Grudziński, Pavlo Kochkin, Anja Kohfeldt, Irfan Kuvvetli, Per Lundahl Thomsen, Søren Møller Pedersen, Javier Navarro-Gonzalez, Torsten Neubert & 15 others Kåre Njøten, Piotr Orleanski, Bilal Qureshi, Linga Cenkeramaddi, Victor Reglero, Manuel Reina, Juan Rodrigo, Maja Rostad, Maria Sabau, Steen Savstrup Kristensen, Yngve Skogseide, Arne Solberg, Johan Stadsnes, Kjetil Ullaland, Shiming Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

The Modular X- and Gamma-ray Sensor (MXGS) is an imaging and spectral X- and Gamma-ray instrument mounted on the starboard side of the Columbus module on the International Space Station. Together with the Modular Multi-Spectral Imaging Assembly (MMIA) (Chanrion et al. this issue) MXGS constitutes the instruments of the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) (Neubert et al. this issue). The main objectives of MXGS are to image and measure the spectrum of X- and γ-rays from lightning discharges, known as Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs), and for MMIA to image and perform high speed photometry of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) and lightning discharges. With these two instruments specifically designed to explore the relation between electrical discharges, TLEs and TGFs, ASIM is the first mission of its kind. With an imaging system and a large detector area MXGS will, for the first time, allow estimation of the location of the source region and characterization of the energy spectrum of individual events. The sensors have fast readout electronics to minimize pileup effects, giving high time resolution of photon detection for comparison with measurements on μs-time scales of lightning processes measured by the MMIA and other sensors in space or on the ground. The detectors cover the large energy range of the relevant photon energies. In this paper we describe the scientific objectives, design, performance, imaging capabilities and operational modes of the MXGS instrument.
Original languageEnglish
Article number23
JournalSpace Science Reviews
Volume215
Issue number2
Number of pages28
ISSN0038-6308
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2019
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Keywords

  • X- and Gamma-ray detector for space
  • International Space Station
  • Atmosphere-Space Interaction Monitor
  • Modular Multi-Spectral Imaging Assembly
  • Modular X- and Gamma-ray Sensor
  • Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

Cite this

Østgaard, Nikolai ; Balling, Jan E. ; Bjørnsen, Thomas ; Brauer, Peter ; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl ; Bujwan, Waldemar ; Carlson, Brant ; Christiansen, Freddy ; Connell, Paul ; Eyles, Chris ; Fehlker, Dominik ; Genov, Georgi ; Grudziński, Pawel ; Kochkin, Pavlo ; Kohfeldt, Anja ; Kuvvetli, Irfan ; Thomsen, Per Lundahl ; Pedersen, Søren Møller ; Navarro-Gonzalez, Javier ; Neubert, Torsten ; Njøten, Kåre ; Orleanski, Piotr ; Qureshi, Bilal ; Cenkeramaddi, Linga ; Reglero, Victor ; Reina, Manuel ; Rodrigo, Juan ; Rostad, Maja ; Sabau, Maria ; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup ; Skogseide, Yngve ; Solberg, Arne ; Stadsnes, Johan ; Ullaland, Kjetil ; Yang, Shiming. / The Modular X- and Gamma-Ray Sensor (MXGS) of the ASIM Payload on the International Space Station. In: Space Science Reviews. 2019 ; Vol. 215, No. 2.
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abstract = "The Modular X- and Gamma-ray Sensor (MXGS) is an imaging and spectral X- and Gamma-ray instrument mounted on the starboard side of the Columbus module on the International Space Station. Together with the Modular Multi-Spectral Imaging Assembly (MMIA) (Chanrion et al. this issue) MXGS constitutes the instruments of the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) (Neubert et al. this issue). The main objectives of MXGS are to image and measure the spectrum of X- and γ-rays from lightning discharges, known as Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs), and for MMIA to image and perform high speed photometry of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) and lightning discharges. With these two instruments specifically designed to explore the relation between electrical discharges, TLEs and TGFs, ASIM is the first mission of its kind. With an imaging system and a large detector area MXGS will, for the first time, allow estimation of the location of the source region and characterization of the energy spectrum of individual events. The sensors have fast readout electronics to minimize pileup effects, giving high time resolution of photon detection for comparison with measurements on μs-time scales of lightning processes measured by the MMIA and other sensors in space or on the ground. The detectors cover the large energy range of the relevant photon energies. In this paper we describe the scientific objectives, design, performance, imaging capabilities and operational modes of the MXGS instrument.",
keywords = "X- and Gamma-ray detector for space, International Space Station, Atmosphere-Space Interaction Monitor, Modular Multi-Spectral Imaging Assembly, Modular X- and Gamma-ray Sensor, Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes",
author = "Nikolai {\O}stgaard and Balling, {Jan E.} and Thomas Bj{\o}rnsen and Peter Brauer and Carl Budtz-J{\o}rgensen and Waldemar Bujwan and Brant Carlson and Freddy Christiansen and Paul Connell and Chris Eyles and Dominik Fehlker and Georgi Genov and Pawel Grudziński and Pavlo Kochkin and Anja Kohfeldt and Irfan Kuvvetli and Thomsen, {Per Lundahl} and Pedersen, {S{\o}ren M{\o}ller} and Javier Navarro-Gonzalez and Torsten Neubert and K{\aa}re Nj{\o}ten and Piotr Orleanski and Bilal Qureshi and Linga Cenkeramaddi and Victor Reglero and Manuel Reina and Juan Rodrigo and Maja Rostad and Maria Sabau and Kristensen, {Steen Savstrup} and Yngve Skogseide and Arne Solberg and Johan Stadsnes and Kjetil Ullaland and Shiming Yang",
note = "{\circledC} The Author(s) 2019 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.",
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language = "English",
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Østgaard, N, Balling, JE, Bjørnsen, T, Brauer, P, Budtz-Jørgensen, C, Bujwan, W, Carlson, B, Christiansen, F, Connell, P, Eyles, C, Fehlker, D, Genov, G, Grudziński, P, Kochkin, P, Kohfeldt, A, Kuvvetli, I, Thomsen, PL, Pedersen, SM, Navarro-Gonzalez, J, Neubert, T, Njøten, K, Orleanski, P, Qureshi, B, Cenkeramaddi, L, Reglero, V, Reina, M, Rodrigo, J, Rostad, M, Sabau, M, Kristensen, SS, Skogseide, Y, Solberg, A, Stadsnes, J, Ullaland, K & Yang, S 2019, 'The Modular X- and Gamma-Ray Sensor (MXGS) of the ASIM Payload on the International Space Station', Space Science Reviews, vol. 215, no. 2, 23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-018-0573-7

The Modular X- and Gamma-Ray Sensor (MXGS) of the ASIM Payload on the International Space Station. / Østgaard, Nikolai; Balling, Jan E.; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Brauer, Peter; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Bujwan, Waldemar; Carlson, Brant; Christiansen, Freddy; Connell, Paul; Eyles, Chris; Fehlker, Dominik; Genov, Georgi; Grudziński, Pawel; Kochkin, Pavlo; Kohfeldt, Anja; Kuvvetli, Irfan; Thomsen, Per Lundahl; Pedersen, Søren Møller; Navarro-Gonzalez, Javier; Neubert, Torsten; Njøten, Kåre; Orleanski, Piotr; Qureshi, Bilal; Cenkeramaddi, Linga; Reglero, Victor; Reina, Manuel; Rodrigo, Juan; Rostad, Maja; Sabau, Maria; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Skogseide, Yngve; Solberg, Arne; Stadsnes, Johan; Ullaland, Kjetil; Yang, Shiming.

In: Space Science Reviews, Vol. 215, No. 2, 23, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Modular X- and Gamma-Ray Sensor (MXGS) of the ASIM Payload on the International Space Station

AU - Østgaard, Nikolai

AU - Balling, Jan E.

AU - Bjørnsen, Thomas

AU - Brauer, Peter

AU - Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

AU - Bujwan, Waldemar

AU - Carlson, Brant

AU - Christiansen, Freddy

AU - Connell, Paul

AU - Eyles, Chris

AU - Fehlker, Dominik

AU - Genov, Georgi

AU - Grudziński, Pawel

AU - Kochkin, Pavlo

AU - Kohfeldt, Anja

AU - Kuvvetli, Irfan

AU - Thomsen, Per Lundahl

AU - Pedersen, Søren Møller

AU - Navarro-Gonzalez, Javier

AU - Neubert, Torsten

AU - Njøten, Kåre

AU - Orleanski, Piotr

AU - Qureshi, Bilal

AU - Cenkeramaddi, Linga

AU - Reglero, Victor

AU - Reina, Manuel

AU - Rodrigo, Juan

AU - Rostad, Maja

AU - Sabau, Maria

AU - Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

AU - Skogseide, Yngve

AU - Solberg, Arne

AU - Stadsnes, Johan

AU - Ullaland, Kjetil

AU - Yang, Shiming

N1 - © The Author(s) 2019 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The Modular X- and Gamma-ray Sensor (MXGS) is an imaging and spectral X- and Gamma-ray instrument mounted on the starboard side of the Columbus module on the International Space Station. Together with the Modular Multi-Spectral Imaging Assembly (MMIA) (Chanrion et al. this issue) MXGS constitutes the instruments of the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) (Neubert et al. this issue). The main objectives of MXGS are to image and measure the spectrum of X- and γ-rays from lightning discharges, known as Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs), and for MMIA to image and perform high speed photometry of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) and lightning discharges. With these two instruments specifically designed to explore the relation between electrical discharges, TLEs and TGFs, ASIM is the first mission of its kind. With an imaging system and a large detector area MXGS will, for the first time, allow estimation of the location of the source region and characterization of the energy spectrum of individual events. The sensors have fast readout electronics to minimize pileup effects, giving high time resolution of photon detection for comparison with measurements on μs-time scales of lightning processes measured by the MMIA and other sensors in space or on the ground. The detectors cover the large energy range of the relevant photon energies. In this paper we describe the scientific objectives, design, performance, imaging capabilities and operational modes of the MXGS instrument.

AB - The Modular X- and Gamma-ray Sensor (MXGS) is an imaging and spectral X- and Gamma-ray instrument mounted on the starboard side of the Columbus module on the International Space Station. Together with the Modular Multi-Spectral Imaging Assembly (MMIA) (Chanrion et al. this issue) MXGS constitutes the instruments of the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) (Neubert et al. this issue). The main objectives of MXGS are to image and measure the spectrum of X- and γ-rays from lightning discharges, known as Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs), and for MMIA to image and perform high speed photometry of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) and lightning discharges. With these two instruments specifically designed to explore the relation between electrical discharges, TLEs and TGFs, ASIM is the first mission of its kind. With an imaging system and a large detector area MXGS will, for the first time, allow estimation of the location of the source region and characterization of the energy spectrum of individual events. The sensors have fast readout electronics to minimize pileup effects, giving high time resolution of photon detection for comparison with measurements on μs-time scales of lightning processes measured by the MMIA and other sensors in space or on the ground. The detectors cover the large energy range of the relevant photon energies. In this paper we describe the scientific objectives, design, performance, imaging capabilities and operational modes of the MXGS instrument.

KW - X- and Gamma-ray detector for space

KW - International Space Station

KW - Atmosphere-Space Interaction Monitor

KW - Modular Multi-Spectral Imaging Assembly

KW - Modular X- and Gamma-ray Sensor

KW - Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

U2 - 10.1007/s11214-018-0573-7

DO - 10.1007/s11214-018-0573-7

M3 - Journal article

VL - 215

JO - Space Science Reviews

JF - Space Science Reviews

SN - 0038-6308

IS - 2

M1 - 23

ER -