The leakage of sewer systems and the impact on the ‘black and odorous water bodies’ and WWTPs in China

Y. S. Cao*, J. G. Tang, Mogens Henze, X. P. Yang, Y. P. Gan, J. Li, H. Krosis, M. C. M. van Loosdrecht, Y. Zhang, G. T. Daigger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

China has achieved significant progress on wastewater treatment and aquatic environmental protection. However, leakage (in- and exfiltration) of sewer systems is still an issue. By using the statistical data of water and wastewater in 2016 in China, and the person loads (PLs) of water and wastewater in Singapore, the leakage fractions of hydraulic flow, organic carbon (COD), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mass loading, and in-sewer COD biological removal in the sewer systems of China (except Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing were reported for the first time. The fractions of hydraulic flow infiltration (13%, Shanghai and Guangzhou) and exfiltration (39%, China) were calculated. Except Beijing, whose sewer networks are under appropriate management with small leakage fractions, the exfiltration fractions of COD (including in-sewer biological COD removal) ranged from 41% (Shanghai) to 66% (China) and averaged 55%; N ranged from 18% (Shanghai) to 48% (China) and averaged 33%; and P ranged from 23% (Shanghai and Guangzhou) to 44% (China) and averaged 30%. The exfiltrated sewage, COD, N and P not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the aquatic environment (especially groundwater) and contributes to ‘black and odorous water bodies’. In- and exfiltration in the sewer network leads to low influent COD concentration, C/N ratio and high inorganic solids and inert particulate COD concentrations of many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) causing high cost for nutrient removal, poor resource recovery, additional reactor/settler volume requirement and other operational problems. Therefore, tackling sewer leakage is of primary importance to today's environment in China. Recommendations for the inspection of sewer systems and the rehabilitation of damaged sewers as well as the development of design and operation guidelines of municipal WWTPs tailored to the specific local sewage characteristics and other conditions are proposed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWater Science and Technology
Volume79
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)334-341
ISSN0273-1223
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Black and odorous water bodies
  • Exfiltration
  • Infiltration
  • Municpal wasteater treatment
  • Nutrient removal
  • Sewer

Cite this

Cao, Y. S. ; Tang, J. G. ; Henze, Mogens ; Yang, X. P. ; Gan, Y. P. ; Li, J. ; Krosis, H. ; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M. ; Zhang, Y. ; Daigger, G. T. / The leakage of sewer systems and the impact on the ‘black and odorous water bodies’ and WWTPs in China. In: Water Science and Technology. 2019 ; Vol. 79, No. 2. pp. 334-341.
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title = "The leakage of sewer systems and the impact on the ‘black and odorous water bodies’ and WWTPs in China",
abstract = "China has achieved significant progress on wastewater treatment and aquatic environmental protection. However, leakage (in- and exfiltration) of sewer systems is still an issue. By using the statistical data of water and wastewater in 2016 in China, and the person loads (PLs) of water and wastewater in Singapore, the leakage fractions of hydraulic flow, organic carbon (COD), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mass loading, and in-sewer COD biological removal in the sewer systems of China (except Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing were reported for the first time. The fractions of hydraulic flow infiltration (13{\%}, Shanghai and Guangzhou) and exfiltration (39{\%}, China) were calculated. Except Beijing, whose sewer networks are under appropriate management with small leakage fractions, the exfiltration fractions of COD (including in-sewer biological COD removal) ranged from 41{\%} (Shanghai) to 66{\%} (China) and averaged 55{\%}; N ranged from 18{\%} (Shanghai) to 48{\%} (China) and averaged 33{\%}; and P ranged from 23{\%} (Shanghai and Guangzhou) to 44{\%} (China) and averaged 30{\%}. The exfiltrated sewage, COD, N and P not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the aquatic environment (especially groundwater) and contributes to ‘black and odorous water bodies’. In- and exfiltration in the sewer network leads to low influent COD concentration, C/N ratio and high inorganic solids and inert particulate COD concentrations of many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) causing high cost for nutrient removal, poor resource recovery, additional reactor/settler volume requirement and other operational problems. Therefore, tackling sewer leakage is of primary importance to today's environment in China. Recommendations for the inspection of sewer systems and the rehabilitation of damaged sewers as well as the development of design and operation guidelines of municipal WWTPs tailored to the specific local sewage characteristics and other conditions are proposed.",
keywords = "Black and odorous water bodies, Exfiltration, Infiltration, Municpal wasteater treatment, Nutrient removal, Sewer",
author = "Cao, {Y. S.} and Tang, {J. G.} and Mogens Henze and Yang, {X. P.} and Gan, {Y. P.} and J. Li and H. Krosis and {van Loosdrecht}, {M. C. M.} and Y. Zhang and Daigger, {G. T.}",
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doi = "10.2166/wst.2019.051",
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Cao, YS, Tang, JG, Henze, M, Yang, XP, Gan, YP, Li, J, Krosis, H, van Loosdrecht, MCM, Zhang, Y & Daigger, GT 2019, 'The leakage of sewer systems and the impact on the ‘black and odorous water bodies’ and WWTPs in China', Water Science and Technology, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 334-341. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2019.051

The leakage of sewer systems and the impact on the ‘black and odorous water bodies’ and WWTPs in China. / Cao, Y. S.; Tang, J. G.; Henze, Mogens; Yang, X. P.; Gan, Y. P.; Li, J.; Krosis, H.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Zhang, Y.; Daigger, G. T.

In: Water Science and Technology, Vol. 79, No. 2, 2019, p. 334-341.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The leakage of sewer systems and the impact on the ‘black and odorous water bodies’ and WWTPs in China

AU - Cao, Y. S.

AU - Tang, J. G.

AU - Henze, Mogens

AU - Yang, X. P.

AU - Gan, Y. P.

AU - Li, J.

AU - Krosis, H.

AU - van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

AU - Zhang, Y.

AU - Daigger, G. T.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - China has achieved significant progress on wastewater treatment and aquatic environmental protection. However, leakage (in- and exfiltration) of sewer systems is still an issue. By using the statistical data of water and wastewater in 2016 in China, and the person loads (PLs) of water and wastewater in Singapore, the leakage fractions of hydraulic flow, organic carbon (COD), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mass loading, and in-sewer COD biological removal in the sewer systems of China (except Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing were reported for the first time. The fractions of hydraulic flow infiltration (13%, Shanghai and Guangzhou) and exfiltration (39%, China) were calculated. Except Beijing, whose sewer networks are under appropriate management with small leakage fractions, the exfiltration fractions of COD (including in-sewer biological COD removal) ranged from 41% (Shanghai) to 66% (China) and averaged 55%; N ranged from 18% (Shanghai) to 48% (China) and averaged 33%; and P ranged from 23% (Shanghai and Guangzhou) to 44% (China) and averaged 30%. The exfiltrated sewage, COD, N and P not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the aquatic environment (especially groundwater) and contributes to ‘black and odorous water bodies’. In- and exfiltration in the sewer network leads to low influent COD concentration, C/N ratio and high inorganic solids and inert particulate COD concentrations of many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) causing high cost for nutrient removal, poor resource recovery, additional reactor/settler volume requirement and other operational problems. Therefore, tackling sewer leakage is of primary importance to today's environment in China. Recommendations for the inspection of sewer systems and the rehabilitation of damaged sewers as well as the development of design and operation guidelines of municipal WWTPs tailored to the specific local sewage characteristics and other conditions are proposed.

AB - China has achieved significant progress on wastewater treatment and aquatic environmental protection. However, leakage (in- and exfiltration) of sewer systems is still an issue. By using the statistical data of water and wastewater in 2016 in China, and the person loads (PLs) of water and wastewater in Singapore, the leakage fractions of hydraulic flow, organic carbon (COD), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mass loading, and in-sewer COD biological removal in the sewer systems of China (except Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing were reported for the first time. The fractions of hydraulic flow infiltration (13%, Shanghai and Guangzhou) and exfiltration (39%, China) were calculated. Except Beijing, whose sewer networks are under appropriate management with small leakage fractions, the exfiltration fractions of COD (including in-sewer biological COD removal) ranged from 41% (Shanghai) to 66% (China) and averaged 55%; N ranged from 18% (Shanghai) to 48% (China) and averaged 33%; and P ranged from 23% (Shanghai and Guangzhou) to 44% (China) and averaged 30%. The exfiltrated sewage, COD, N and P not only wastes resources, but also contaminates the aquatic environment (especially groundwater) and contributes to ‘black and odorous water bodies’. In- and exfiltration in the sewer network leads to low influent COD concentration, C/N ratio and high inorganic solids and inert particulate COD concentrations of many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) causing high cost for nutrient removal, poor resource recovery, additional reactor/settler volume requirement and other operational problems. Therefore, tackling sewer leakage is of primary importance to today's environment in China. Recommendations for the inspection of sewer systems and the rehabilitation of damaged sewers as well as the development of design and operation guidelines of municipal WWTPs tailored to the specific local sewage characteristics and other conditions are proposed.

KW - Black and odorous water bodies

KW - Exfiltration

KW - Infiltration

KW - Municpal wasteater treatment

KW - Nutrient removal

KW - Sewer

U2 - 10.2166/wst.2019.051

DO - 10.2166/wst.2019.051

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 30865604

VL - 79

SP - 334

EP - 341

JO - Water Science and Technology

JF - Water Science and Technology

SN - 0273-1223

IS - 2

ER -