The intestinal microbiome is a co-determinant of the postprandial plasma glucose response

Nadja B. Søndertoft*, Josef K. Vogt, Manimozhiyan Arumugam, Mette Kristensen, Rikke J. Gøbel, Yong Fan, Liwei Lyu, Martin Iain Bahl, Carsten Eriksen, Lars Ängquist, Hanne Frøkiær, Tue H. Hansen, Susanne Brix, H. Bjørn Nielsen, Torben Hansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Ramneek Gupta, Tine Rask Licht, Lotte Lauritzen, Oluf Pedersen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Elevated postprandial plasma glucose is a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the inter-individual postprandial plasma glucose response varies partly depending on the intestinal microbiome composition and function. We analyzed data from Danish adults (n = 106), who were self-reported healthy and attended the baseline visit of two previously reported randomized controlled cross-over trials within the Gut, Grain and Greens project. Plasma glucose concentrations at five time points were measured before and during three hours after a standardized breakfast. Based on these data, we devised machine learning algorithms integrating bio-clinical, as well as shotgun-sequencing-derived taxa and functional potentials of the intestinal microbiome to predict individual postprandial glucose excursions. In this post hoc study, we found microbial and clinical features, which predicted up to 48% of the inter-individual variance of postprandial plasma glucose responses (Pearson correlation coefficient of measured vs. predicted values, R = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.84, p<0.001). The features were age, fasting serum triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, BMI, fasting total serum cholesterol, abundance of Bifidobacterium genus, richness of metagenomics species and abundance of a metagenomic species annotated to Clostridiales at order level. A model based only on microbial features predicted up to 14% of the variance in postprandial plasma glucose excursions (R = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.64, p = 0.04). Adding fasting glycaemic measures to the model including microbial and bio-clinical features increased the predictive power to R = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.89, p<0.001), explaining more than 60% of the inter-individual variance of postprandial plasma glucose concentrations. The outcome of the study points to a potential role of the taxa and functional potentials of the intestinal microbiome. If validated in larger studies our findings may be included in future algorithms attempting to develop personalized nutrition, especially for prediction of individual blood glucose excursions in dys-glycaemic individuals.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0238648
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume15
Issue number9
Number of pages23
ISSN1932-6203
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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