Supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysts with Rh-TPPTS (Rh-tricesium 3,3’,3’’-phosphanetriyltris(benzenesulfonate)) complexes and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulfate ([BMIm][n-C8H17OSO3] have been prepared with the supports SiO2, MCM-41, SBA-15, Al2O3 and ZrO2 with IL loadings corresponding to 2.5-70 % of the pore volume, characterized and evaluated for continuous, gas-phase hydroformylation of ethylene. The initial pore size of the supports strongly influenced the pore distribution and the optimal IL loading of the SILP catalysts. After IL loading, pore sizes narrowed for the supports with large mesopores (SiO2, SBA-15 and Al2O3), while the pore system altered to form secondary larger pores for the support with micropores and small mesopores (MCM-41 and ZrO2). For hydroformylation of ethylene, the amount of IL had an important role on the catalytic activity of the SILP catalysts, and each support exhibited a different optimal IL loading to obtain the highest activity.
- Ethylene hydroformation
- Heterogeneous catalysis
- Support effect
- Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysis