The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

Maanasa Raghavan, Michael DeGiorgio, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Pontus Skoglund, Thorfinn S. Korneliussen, Bjarne Grønnow, Martin Appelt, Hans Christian Gulløv, T. Max Friesen, William Fitzhugh, Helena Malmström, Simon Rasmussen, Jesper Olsen, Linea Melchior, Benjamin T. Fuller, Simon M. Fahrni, Thomas Stafford, Vaughan Grimes, M. A. Priscilla RenoufJerome Cybulski, Niels Lynnerup, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Kate Britton, Rick Knecht, Jette Arneborg, Mait Metspalu, Omar E. Cornejo, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Yong Wang, Morten Rasmussen, Vibha Raghavan, Thomas V. O. Hansen, Elza Khusnutdinova, Tracey Pierre, Kirill Dneprovsky, Claus Andreasen, Hans Lange, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Joan Coltrain, Victor A. Spitsyn, Anders Gotherstrom, Ludovic Orlando, Toomas Kivisild, Richard Villems, Michael H. Crawford, Finn C. Nielsen, Jørgen Dissing, Jan Heinemeier, Morten Meldgaard, Carlos Bustamante, Dennis H. O'Rourke, Mattias Jakobsson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (similar to 3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1255832
    JournalScience
    Volume345
    Issue number6200
    Number of pages9
    ISSN0036-8075
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

    Keywords

    • Alaska
    • Arctic Regions
    • Base Sequence
    • Bone and Bones
    • Canada
    • DNA, Mitochondrial
    • Genome, Human
    • Greenland
    • Hair
    • History, Ancient
    • Human Migration
    • Humans
    • Inuits
    • Molecular Sequence Data
    • Siberia
    • Survivors
    • Tooth
    • Alaska USA, North America Nearctic region
    • Aleutian Islands North Pacific Pacific Ocean
    • Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean
    • Canada North America Nearctic region
    • Greenland Nearctic region
    • Siberia Russia, Asia, Europe Palearctic region
    • archeology
    • gene flow
    • genetic prehistory
    • genome-wide sequence data
    • geographical distribution
    • species migration
    • Primates Mammalia Vertebrata Chordata Animalia (Animals, Chordates, Humans, Mammals, Primates, Vertebrates) - Hominidae [86215] human common Fossil Native American, Inuit
    • 03506, Genetics - Animal
    • 03508, Genetics - Human
    • 03509, Genetics - Population genetics
    • 05000, Physical anthropology and ethnobiology
    • 10062, Biochemistry studies - Nucleic acids, purines and pyrimidines
    • 62520, Chordata: general and systematic - Mammalia
    • 63000, Paleozoology
    • 64500, Paleobiology
    • Population Studies
    • GSE59546 Gene Expression Omnibus nucleotide sequence
    • PRJEB6516 European Nucleotide Archive nucleotide sequence
    • Anthropology
    • Human Geography
    • Paleobiology
    • Population Genetics
    • MULTIDISCIPLINARY
    • POPULATION HISTORY
    • GENOME SEQUENCE
    • MTDNA VARIATION
    • GREENLAND
    • ADMIXTURE
    • AMERICA
    • CANADA
    • ESKIMO
    • DORSET
    • DIVERSITY
    • Research Articles
    • GENETICS
    • ONLINE

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