The FORA Fog Computing Platform for Industrial IoT

Paul Pop*, Bahram Zarrin, Mohammadreza Barzegaran, Stefan Schulte, Sasikumar Punnekkat, Jan Ruh, Wilfried Steiner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Industry 4.0 will only become a reality through the convergence of Operational and Information Technologies (OT & IT), which use different computation and communication technologies. Cloud Computing cannot be used for OT involving industrial applications, since it cannot guarantee stringent non-functional requirements, e.g., dependability, trustworthiness and timeliness. Instead, a new computing paradigm, called Fog Computing, is envisioned as an architectural means to realize the IT/OT convergence. In this paper we propose a Fog Computing Platform (FCP) reference architecture targeting Industrial IoT applications. The FCP is based on: deterministic virtualization that reduces the effort required for safety and security assurance; middleware for supporting both critical control and dynamic Fog applications; deterministic networking and interoperability, using open standards such as IEEE 802.1 Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) and OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA); mechanisms for resource management and orchestration; and services for security, fault tolerance and distributed machine learning. We propose a methodology for the definition and the evaluation of the reference architecture. We use the Architecture Analysis Design Language (AADL) to model the FCP reference architecture, and a set of industrial use cases to evaluate its suitability for the Industrial IoT area.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101727
JournalInformation Systems
Number of pages26
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 764785 .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd


  • AADL
  • Deterministic virtualization
  • Fog Computing
  • Industrial IoT
  • Industry 4.0
  • Time-Sensitive Networking


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