The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks

Hakan İbrahim Tol, Svend Svendsen

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Low-Energy District Heating (DH) systems, providing great energy savings by means of very low operating temperatures of 55 °C and 25 °C for supply and return respectively, were considered to be the 4th generation of the DH systems for a low-energy future. Low-temperature operation is considered to be used in a low-energy DH network to carry the heat produced by renewable and/or low grade energy sources to low-energy Danish buildings. In this study, a comparison of various design considerations with different levels of maximum design static pressures was performed, and their results evaluated in terms of energetic, exergetic, economic, and environmental perspectives.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)1
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Low-energy
  • Low-temperature
  • District heating
  • Substation
  • Pressure loss
  • Maximum static pressure
  • Optimization
  • Environmental impact

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