The effects of stocking density and low level sustained exercise on the energetic efficiency of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at 19°C

Bodil Katrine Larsen, Peter Vilhelm Skov, David J. McKenzie, Alfred Jokumsen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

A 9 week growth trial was performed at two rearing densities; low (~25 kg m−3) and high (~100 kg m−3), in combination with either static water or a water current corresponding to 0.9 body lengths s−1, to investigate the effects of density and exercise on the bioenergetics of rainbow trout reared at 19 °C, particularly routine metabolic rate (RMR), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The growth trial showed that high rearing density resulted in significantly lower SGR and increased FCR, with no significant alleviating effects of awater current, although slight improvement in both parameterswere observed at lowdensity. A significant linear relationship between SGR and FCR suggested that increased energy expenditurewas the primary cause of reduced growth. Hourlymeasurements of instantaneous oxygen uptake, during a period of similar growth (200–350 g), revealed clear effects of the experimental conditions. Energetic budgets were calculated fromfeed intake and routinemetabolic rate (RMR) and revealed thatwhilst feed intakewas similar for all groups, a higher RMR in the high density groups resulted in a higher daily rate of energy utilization for routine activity, leading to slower growth. However, a lowerRMR in fish subjected to a current resulted in a greater proportion of energy being retained, leading to significantly higher SGR for the selected period, at both low and high density. Furthermore, the presence of a water current was observed to induce schooling behaviour, which is known to reduce aggression and stress. It is thereby likely that the presence of a current had a positive effect on welfare in addition to its effect on energy metabolism. We conclude that the presence of a water current to some extent could alleviate the negative effects of high density at 19 °C, a relatively high temperature experienced in farming of rainbow trout during hot seasons
Original languageEnglish
JournalAquaculture
Volume324-325
Pages (from-to)226-233
ISSN0044-8486
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Cite this

@article{35c8b4d56656443a969ef27f3350f07a,
title = "The effects of stocking density and low level sustained exercise on the energetic efficiency of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at 19°C",
abstract = "A 9 week growth trial was performed at two rearing densities; low (~25 kg m−3) and high (~100 kg m−3), in combination with either static water or a water current corresponding to 0.9 body lengths s−1, to investigate the effects of density and exercise on the bioenergetics of rainbow trout reared at 19 °C, particularly routine metabolic rate (RMR), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The growth trial showed that high rearing density resulted in significantly lower SGR and increased FCR, with no significant alleviating effects of awater current, although slight improvement in both parameterswere observed at lowdensity. A significant linear relationship between SGR and FCR suggested that increased energy expenditurewas the primary cause of reduced growth. Hourlymeasurements of instantaneous oxygen uptake, during a period of similar growth (200–350 g), revealed clear effects of the experimental conditions. Energetic budgets were calculated fromfeed intake and routinemetabolic rate (RMR) and revealed thatwhilst feed intakewas similar for all groups, a higher RMR in the high density groups resulted in a higher daily rate of energy utilization for routine activity, leading to slower growth. However, a lowerRMR in fish subjected to a current resulted in a greater proportion of energy being retained, leading to significantly higher SGR for the selected period, at both low and high density. Furthermore, the presence of a water current was observed to induce schooling behaviour, which is known to reduce aggression and stress. It is thereby likely that the presence of a current had a positive effect on welfare in addition to its effect on energy metabolism. We conclude that the presence of a water current to some extent could alleviate the negative effects of high density at 19 °C, a relatively high temperature experienced in farming of rainbow trout during hot seasons",
author = "Larsen, {Bodil Katrine} and Skov, {Peter Vilhelm} and McKenzie, {David J.} and Alfred Jokumsen",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.10.021",
language = "English",
volume = "324-325",
pages = "226--233",
journal = "Aquaculture",
issn = "0044-8486",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

The effects of stocking density and low level sustained exercise on the energetic efficiency of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at 19°C. / Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; McKenzie, David J.; Jokumsen, Alfred.

In: Aquaculture, Vol. 324-325, 2012, p. 226-233.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effects of stocking density and low level sustained exercise on the energetic efficiency of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at 19°C

AU - Larsen, Bodil Katrine

AU - Skov, Peter Vilhelm

AU - McKenzie, David J.

AU - Jokumsen, Alfred

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - A 9 week growth trial was performed at two rearing densities; low (~25 kg m−3) and high (~100 kg m−3), in combination with either static water or a water current corresponding to 0.9 body lengths s−1, to investigate the effects of density and exercise on the bioenergetics of rainbow trout reared at 19 °C, particularly routine metabolic rate (RMR), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The growth trial showed that high rearing density resulted in significantly lower SGR and increased FCR, with no significant alleviating effects of awater current, although slight improvement in both parameterswere observed at lowdensity. A significant linear relationship between SGR and FCR suggested that increased energy expenditurewas the primary cause of reduced growth. Hourlymeasurements of instantaneous oxygen uptake, during a period of similar growth (200–350 g), revealed clear effects of the experimental conditions. Energetic budgets were calculated fromfeed intake and routinemetabolic rate (RMR) and revealed thatwhilst feed intakewas similar for all groups, a higher RMR in the high density groups resulted in a higher daily rate of energy utilization for routine activity, leading to slower growth. However, a lowerRMR in fish subjected to a current resulted in a greater proportion of energy being retained, leading to significantly higher SGR for the selected period, at both low and high density. Furthermore, the presence of a water current was observed to induce schooling behaviour, which is known to reduce aggression and stress. It is thereby likely that the presence of a current had a positive effect on welfare in addition to its effect on energy metabolism. We conclude that the presence of a water current to some extent could alleviate the negative effects of high density at 19 °C, a relatively high temperature experienced in farming of rainbow trout during hot seasons

AB - A 9 week growth trial was performed at two rearing densities; low (~25 kg m−3) and high (~100 kg m−3), in combination with either static water or a water current corresponding to 0.9 body lengths s−1, to investigate the effects of density and exercise on the bioenergetics of rainbow trout reared at 19 °C, particularly routine metabolic rate (RMR), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The growth trial showed that high rearing density resulted in significantly lower SGR and increased FCR, with no significant alleviating effects of awater current, although slight improvement in both parameterswere observed at lowdensity. A significant linear relationship between SGR and FCR suggested that increased energy expenditurewas the primary cause of reduced growth. Hourlymeasurements of instantaneous oxygen uptake, during a period of similar growth (200–350 g), revealed clear effects of the experimental conditions. Energetic budgets were calculated fromfeed intake and routinemetabolic rate (RMR) and revealed thatwhilst feed intakewas similar for all groups, a higher RMR in the high density groups resulted in a higher daily rate of energy utilization for routine activity, leading to slower growth. However, a lowerRMR in fish subjected to a current resulted in a greater proportion of energy being retained, leading to significantly higher SGR for the selected period, at both low and high density. Furthermore, the presence of a water current was observed to induce schooling behaviour, which is known to reduce aggression and stress. It is thereby likely that the presence of a current had a positive effect on welfare in addition to its effect on energy metabolism. We conclude that the presence of a water current to some extent could alleviate the negative effects of high density at 19 °C, a relatively high temperature experienced in farming of rainbow trout during hot seasons

U2 - 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.10.021

DO - 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.10.021

M3 - Journal article

VL - 324-325

SP - 226

EP - 233

JO - Aquaculture

JF - Aquaculture

SN - 0044-8486

ER -