The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

a randomized 18-month trial

Anette Due*, Thomas M. Larsen, Huiling Mu, Kjeld Hermansen, Steen Stender, Søren Toubro, David B. Allison, Arne Astrup

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Purpose: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. Methods: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 ± 4.8 years were randomized to either 1. Moderate fat (40 E%) with 20 E% MUFA and low in glycemic index (GI) (MUFA, n = 54), 2. Low fat (25 E%) and medium in GI (LF, n = 51) or 3. Control (35 E% fat) and high in GI (CTR, n = 26) all with similar protein content, and all provided ad libitum. First 6-month intervention with 100 % food provision (previously reported) following 12 months of moderately intensive intervention with 20 % food provision now reported. Results: Attrition rate was higher in MUFA (63 %) than in LF (37 %, P = 0.019) and CTR (42 %, P = 0.09) group. Weight regain in completers was not different between groups (mean ± SEM), MUFA 7.1 ± 2.1 % versus LF 5.6 ± 1.3 % versus CTR 7.2 ± 1.5 %, nor was body fat regain, MUFA 4.8 ± 1.0 % versus LF 4.7 ± 0.8 % versus CTR 5.7 ± 0.6 %. The MUFA group reduced LDL/HDL ratio by −0.47 ± 0.09 compared with −0.23 ± 0.11 in LF (P < 0.05) and 0.06 ± 0.14 (P < 0.005) in CTR groups. Conclusions: Weight regain or body composition did not differ between diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared to the CTR diet. The LF diet was generally more satisfactory and the MUFA diet seemed more difficult to follow.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
    Volume56
    Issue number2
    Pages (from-to)727-738
    Number of pages12
    ISSN1436-6207
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017

    Keywords

    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Dietary intervention
    • Mediterranean diet
    • Weight loss
    • Weight maintenance

    Cite this

    Due, Anette ; Larsen, Thomas M. ; Mu, Huiling ; Hermansen, Kjeld ; Stender, Steen ; Toubro, Søren ; Allison, David B. ; Astrup, Arne. / The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance : a randomized 18-month trial. In: European Journal of Nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 56, No. 2. pp. 727-738.
    @article{c64834ab349247d180586d780b8b36ec,
    title = "The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance: a randomized 18-month trial",
    abstract = "Purpose: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. Methods: Following a ≥8 {\%} weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 ± 4.8 years were randomized to either 1. Moderate fat (40 E{\%}) with 20 E{\%} MUFA and low in glycemic index (GI) (MUFA, n = 54), 2. Low fat (25 E{\%}) and medium in GI (LF, n = 51) or 3. Control (35 E{\%} fat) and high in GI (CTR, n = 26) all with similar protein content, and all provided ad libitum. First 6-month intervention with 100 {\%} food provision (previously reported) following 12 months of moderately intensive intervention with 20 {\%} food provision now reported. Results: Attrition rate was higher in MUFA (63 {\%}) than in LF (37 {\%}, P = 0.019) and CTR (42 {\%}, P = 0.09) group. Weight regain in completers was not different between groups (mean ± SEM), MUFA 7.1 ± 2.1 {\%} versus LF 5.6 ± 1.3 {\%} versus CTR 7.2 ± 1.5 {\%}, nor was body fat regain, MUFA 4.8 ± 1.0 {\%} versus LF 4.7 ± 0.8 {\%} versus CTR 5.7 ± 0.6 {\%}. The MUFA group reduced LDL/HDL ratio by −0.47 ± 0.09 compared with −0.23 ± 0.11 in LF (P < 0.05) and 0.06 ± 0.14 (P < 0.005) in CTR groups. Conclusions: Weight regain or body composition did not differ between diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared to the CTR diet. The LF diet was generally more satisfactory and the MUFA diet seemed more difficult to follow.",
    keywords = "Cardiovascular disease, Dietary intervention, Mediterranean diet, Weight loss, Weight maintenance",
    author = "Anette Due and Larsen, {Thomas M.} and Huiling Mu and Kjeld Hermansen and Steen Stender and S{\o}ren Toubro and Allison, {David B.} and Arne Astrup",
    year = "2017",
    month = "3",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1007/s00394-015-1116-6",
    language = "English",
    volume = "56",
    pages = "727--738",
    journal = "European Journal of Nutrition",
    issn = "1436-6207",
    publisher = "Springer Medizin",
    number = "2",

    }

    Due, A, Larsen, TM, Mu, H, Hermansen, K, Stender, S, Toubro, S, Allison, DB & Astrup, A 2017, 'The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance: a randomized 18-month trial', European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 727-738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-1116-6

    The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance : a randomized 18-month trial. / Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M.; Mu, Huiling; Hermansen, Kjeld; Stender, Steen; Toubro, Søren; Allison, David B.; Astrup, Arne.

    In: European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 56, No. 2, 01.03.2017, p. 727-738.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    T2 - a randomized 18-month trial

    AU - Due, Anette

    AU - Larsen, Thomas M.

    AU - Mu, Huiling

    AU - Hermansen, Kjeld

    AU - Stender, Steen

    AU - Toubro, Søren

    AU - Allison, David B.

    AU - Astrup, Arne

    PY - 2017/3/1

    Y1 - 2017/3/1

    N2 - Purpose: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. Methods: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 ± 4.8 years were randomized to either 1. Moderate fat (40 E%) with 20 E% MUFA and low in glycemic index (GI) (MUFA, n = 54), 2. Low fat (25 E%) and medium in GI (LF, n = 51) or 3. Control (35 E% fat) and high in GI (CTR, n = 26) all with similar protein content, and all provided ad libitum. First 6-month intervention with 100 % food provision (previously reported) following 12 months of moderately intensive intervention with 20 % food provision now reported. Results: Attrition rate was higher in MUFA (63 %) than in LF (37 %, P = 0.019) and CTR (42 %, P = 0.09) group. Weight regain in completers was not different between groups (mean ± SEM), MUFA 7.1 ± 2.1 % versus LF 5.6 ± 1.3 % versus CTR 7.2 ± 1.5 %, nor was body fat regain, MUFA 4.8 ± 1.0 % versus LF 4.7 ± 0.8 % versus CTR 5.7 ± 0.6 %. The MUFA group reduced LDL/HDL ratio by −0.47 ± 0.09 compared with −0.23 ± 0.11 in LF (P < 0.05) and 0.06 ± 0.14 (P < 0.005) in CTR groups. Conclusions: Weight regain or body composition did not differ between diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared to the CTR diet. The LF diet was generally more satisfactory and the MUFA diet seemed more difficult to follow.

    AB - Purpose: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. Methods: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 ± 4.8 years were randomized to either 1. Moderate fat (40 E%) with 20 E% MUFA and low in glycemic index (GI) (MUFA, n = 54), 2. Low fat (25 E%) and medium in GI (LF, n = 51) or 3. Control (35 E% fat) and high in GI (CTR, n = 26) all with similar protein content, and all provided ad libitum. First 6-month intervention with 100 % food provision (previously reported) following 12 months of moderately intensive intervention with 20 % food provision now reported. Results: Attrition rate was higher in MUFA (63 %) than in LF (37 %, P = 0.019) and CTR (42 %, P = 0.09) group. Weight regain in completers was not different between groups (mean ± SEM), MUFA 7.1 ± 2.1 % versus LF 5.6 ± 1.3 % versus CTR 7.2 ± 1.5 %, nor was body fat regain, MUFA 4.8 ± 1.0 % versus LF 4.7 ± 0.8 % versus CTR 5.7 ± 0.6 %. The MUFA group reduced LDL/HDL ratio by −0.47 ± 0.09 compared with −0.23 ± 0.11 in LF (P < 0.05) and 0.06 ± 0.14 (P < 0.005) in CTR groups. Conclusions: Weight regain or body composition did not differ between diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared to the CTR diet. The LF diet was generally more satisfactory and the MUFA diet seemed more difficult to follow.

    KW - Cardiovascular disease

    KW - Dietary intervention

    KW - Mediterranean diet

    KW - Weight loss

    KW - Weight maintenance

    U2 - 10.1007/s00394-015-1116-6

    DO - 10.1007/s00394-015-1116-6

    M3 - Journal article

    VL - 56

    SP - 727

    EP - 738

    JO - European Journal of Nutrition

    JF - European Journal of Nutrition

    SN - 1436-6207

    IS - 2

    ER -