The efect of cold waves on mortality in urban and rural areas of Madrid

José Antonio López-Bueno, Miguel Ángel Navas-Martín, Julio Diaz, Isidro Juan Mirón, María Yolanda Luna Rico, Gerardo Sanchez Martinez, Dante Culqui, Cristina Linares

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

3 Downloads (Pure)


While many studies analyze the effect of extreme thermal events on health, little has been written about the effects of extreme cold on mortality. This scarcity of papers is particularly relevant when we search studies about extreme cold on the health of rural population. Therefore, we tried to analyze the effect of cold waves on urban areas and rural areas from Madrid and to test whether differentiated effects exist between both population classes. For this purpose, we analyzed data from the municipalities with over 10,000 inhabitants for the period from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2013. Municipalities were classified as urban or rural (Eurostat), and they were grouped into similar climatological zones: Urban Metropolitan Centre (UMC), Rural Northern Mountains (RNM), Rural Centre (RC) and Southern Rural (SR). The dependent variable was the daily mortality rate due to natural causes per million inhabitants (CIE-X: A00-R99) that occurred between the months of November and March for the period. The independent variable was minimum daily temperature (ºC) (Tmin). Social and demographic contextual variables were used, including: population > age 64 (%), deprivation index and housing indicators. The analysis was carried out in three phases: (1) determination of the threshold temperature (Tthreshold) which defines the cold waves; (2) determination of the relative risk (RR) for cold waves using Poisson linear regression (GLM); and (3) using GLM of the binomial family, Odds Ratios (OR) were calculated to analyze the relationship between the frequency of the appearance of cold waves and the socioeconomic variables.
Original languageEnglish
Article number72
JournalEnvironmental Sciences Europe
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Cold waves
  • Mortality
  • Urban–rural
  • Deprivation
  • Building quality
  • Aging


Dive into the research topics of 'The efect of cold waves on mortality in urban and rural areas of Madrid'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this