Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate species, which belongs to the Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) family. It is closely related to human, serving as a model for human health related research. However, the genetic studies on and genomic resources of mandrill are limited, especially in comparison to other primate species. Here we produced 284 Gb data, providing 96-fold coverage (considering the estimated genome size of 2.9 Gb), to construct a reference genome for the mandrill. The assembled draft genome was 2.79 Gb with contig N50 of 20.48 Kb and scaffold N50 of 3.56 Mb. We annotated the mandrill genome to find 43.83% repeat elements, as well as 21,906 protein-coding genes. The draft genome was of good quality with 98% gene annotation coverage by Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO). Based on comparative genomic analyses of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of the immune system in mandrill and human, we found that 17 genes in the mandrill that have been associated with disease phenotypes in human such as Lung cancer, cranial volume and asthma, barbored amino acids changing mutations. Gene family analyses revealed expansion of several genes, and several genes associated with stress environmental adaptation and innate immunity responses exhibited signatures of positive selection. In summary, we established the first draft genome of the mandrill of value for studies on evolution and human health.