The Concept of Smartness in Cyber-Physical Systems and Connection to Urban Environment

Balaji Kalluri Mallikarjuna*, Christos Chronopoulos, Igor Kozin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The next-generation systems are expected to be largely cyber–physical systems (CPSs) that autonomously control physical processes, through sensors and actuators typically in real-time feedback and cooperative control loops distributed among physical and cyber environments. The rapid technological advancements enhance the smartness of these CPSs, pushing their boundaries of performance and efficiency by embedding new information and communication technologies. However, to what extent CPSs should be smarter so that they do not compromise safety and security of safety critical systems? is an open research question. Towards this goal, the purpose of this study is to establish a grounded theory to analyse what makes these systems smart? and eventually, how to find a balance between smartness and safety risks? In this precinct, this article aims to develop a conceptual framework, define the dimensions and derive the characteristics that make CPSs smart. The proposed approach combines an automated informetric and systematic analysis of literature pertinent to the topic of smartness across anthropology, science, engineering and technology. The analysis of a case study building and the discussions presented herein support the connection between the existing understanding of CPSs and smartness offered by the building design approach in urban environment.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnual Reviews in Control
Pages (from-to)1-22
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Cyber–physical system
  • Smartness
  • Conceptual foundation
  • Conceptual framework
  • Real case study
  • AEC industry
  • Urban system


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