The secondary electron emission contrast between poled and unpoled regions in thermally poled Ge-doped silica films were measured according to different annealing temperatures and electron doses with electron acceleration energy of 5 keV. It is used for measuring the change on annealing of poling induced electric field and other insulating properties like electron traps population and conductivity in high field. Concerning the change of the contrast at low dose arising from the poling electric field, we show that this field begins to disappear at around 450 degrees C and is erased completely at 650 degrees C. Using a larger dose allows measuring the change in conductivity contrast. We find a stability similar to the electric field with a disappearance around 450 similar to 650 degrees C. On the contrary, for intermediate dose, the contrast remains for larger annealing temperature. It allows measuring properties of the electron traps. Their number appears to be modified in the poling process.
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Liu, Q. M., Poumellec, B., Braga, D., Blaise, G., Ren, Y., & Kristensen, M. (2005). The change of electric field and of some other insulating properties during isochronal annealing in thermally poled Ge-doped silica films. Applied Physics Letters, 87(12), 121906. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2053361