Aggregation and control of electric vehicles (EVs) via vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technologies is seen as a valid option for providing ancillary power system services. This work presents results from V2G-ready equipment tests and modelling. The technical capabilities of an EV connected to a commercial V2G charger are investigated when controlled either locally or remotely. The charger is characterized in terms of efficiency characteristics, activation time, response granularity, ramping-up/down time, accuracy and precision. Test results show the performance for different operating conditions, highlighting the importance of a good calibration and knowledge of the employed hardware when providing standard-compliant grid regulation services via V2G technology. Ultimately, a set of simulations demonstrates that the designed EV charger model replicates accurately the operating conditions of the real hardware.
- Commercial EV chargers
- Electric vehicles