To prevent online models diverging from reality they need to be updated to current conditions using observations and data assimilation techniques. A way of doing this for distributed hydrodynamic urban drainage models is to use the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), but this requires running an ensemble of models online, which is computationally demanding. This can be circumvented by calculating the Kalman gain, which is the governing matrix of the updating, offline if the gain is approximately constant in time. Here, we show in a synthetic experiment that the Kalman gain can vary by several orders of magnitude in a non-uniform and time-dynamic manner during surcharge conditions caused by backwater when updating a hydrodynamic model of a simple sewer system with the EnKF. This implies that constant gain updating is not suitable for distributed hydrodynamic urban drainage models and that the full EnKF is in fact required.
- data assimilation
- distributed urban drainage models
- Ensemble Kalman Filter
- Kalman gain
- sewer surcharge