Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 1 - single stage vapour compression heat pumps

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Abstract

A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of heat pumps operated with natural working fluids. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions was carried out considering the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive net present value of the investment. Six heat pump systems were considered, corresponding to an upper limit of the sink temperature of 120 °C. For each set of heat sink and source temperatures the best available technology was determined. The results showed that four different heat pump systems propose the best available technology at different parts of the complete domain. Ammonia systems presented the best available technology at low sink outlet temperature. At high temperature difference between sink in- and outlet, the transcritical R744 expands the working domain for low sink outlet temperatures.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Refrigeration
Volume55
Pages (from-to)168–182
Number of pages21
ISSN0140-7007
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Industrial heat pumps
  • Working domain
  • Absorption-compression heat pump
  • Economic evaluation
  • Natural refrigerants

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