Taxonomy of Aspergillus section Flavi and their production of aflatoxins, ochratoxins and other mycotoxins

Jens Christian Frisvad*, V. Hubka, C. N. Ezekiel, S. B. Hong, A. Nováková, A. J. Chen, M. Arzanlou, T. O. Larsen, F. Sklenář, W. Mahakarnchanakul, R. A. Samson, J. Houbraken

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

191 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Aflatoxins and ochratoxins are among the most important mycotoxins of all and producers of both types of mycotoxins are present in Aspergillus section Flavi, albeit never in the same species. Some of the most efficient producers of aflatoxins and ochratoxins have not been described yet. Using a polyphasic approach combining phenotype, physiology, sequence and extrolite data, we describe here eight new species in section Flavi. Phylogenetically, section Flavi is split in eight clades and the section currently contains 33 species. Two species only produce aflatoxin B1 and B2 (A. pseudotamarii and A. togoensis), and 14 species are able to produce aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2: three newly described species A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii and A. cerealis in addition to A. arachidicola, A. minisclerotigenes, A. mottae, A. luteovirescens (formerly A. bombycis), A. nomius, A. novoparasiticus, A. parasiticus, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudonomius, A. sergii and A. transmontanensis. It is generally accepted that A. flavus is unable to produce type G aflatoxins, but here we report on Korean strains that also produce aflatoxin G1 and G2. One strain of A. bertholletius can produce the immediate aflatoxin precursor 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin, and one strain of Aspergillus sojae and two strains of Aspergillus alliaceus produced versicolorins. Strains of the domesticated forms of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, A. oryzae and A. sojae, respectively, lost their ability to produce aflatoxins, and from the remaining phylogenetically closely related species (belonging to the A. flavus-, A. tamarii-, A. bertholletius- and A. nomius-clades), only A. caelatus, A. subflavus and A. tamarii are unable to produce aflatoxins. With exception of A. togoensis in the A. coremiiformis-clade, all species in the phylogenetically more distant clades (A. alliaceus-, A. coremiiformis-, A. leporis- and A. avenaceus-clade) are unable to produce aflatoxins. Three out of the four species in the A. alliaceus-clade can produce the mycotoxin ochratoxin A: A. alliaceus s. str. and two new species described here as A. neoalliaceus and A. vandermerwei. Eight species produced the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid: A. bertholletius, A. caelatus, A. luteovirescens, A. nomius, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudonomius, A. pseudotamarii and A. tamarii while the related mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid was produced by 13 species: A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii, A. bertholletius, A. cerealis, A. flavus, A. minisclerotigenes, A. mottae, A. oryzae, A. pipericola, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudotamarii, A. sergii and A. tamarii. Furthermore, A. hancockii produced speradine A, a compound related to cyclopiazonic acid. Selected A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii, A. cerealis, A. flavus, A. minisclerotigenes, A. pipericola and A. sergii strains produced small sclerotia containing the mycotoxin aflatrem. Kojic acid has been found in all species in section Flavi, except A. avenaceus and A. coremiiformis. Only six species in the section did not produce any known mycotoxins: A. aspearensis, A. coremiiformis, A. lanosus, A. leporis, A. sojae and A. subflavus. An overview of other small molecule extrolites produced in Aspergillus section Flavi is given.

Original languageEnglish
JournalStudies in Mycology
Volume93
Pages (from-to)1-63
ISSN0166-0616
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Keywords

  • Aflatoxins
  • Aspergillus
  • Cyclopiazonic acid
  • Section Flavi
  • Tenuazonic acid

Cite this

Frisvad, Jens Christian ; Hubka, V. ; Ezekiel, C. N. ; Hong, S. B. ; Nováková, A. ; Chen, A. J. ; Arzanlou, M. ; Larsen, T. O. ; Sklenář, F. ; Mahakarnchanakul, W. ; Samson, R. A. ; Houbraken, J. / Taxonomy of Aspergillus section Flavi and their production of aflatoxins, ochratoxins and other mycotoxins. In: Studies in Mycology. 2019 ; Vol. 93. pp. 1-63.
@article{f97fcf5e50af487d8a227e88ff2a6c16,
title = "Taxonomy of Aspergillus section Flavi and their production of aflatoxins, ochratoxins and other mycotoxins",
abstract = "Aflatoxins and ochratoxins are among the most important mycotoxins of all and producers of both types of mycotoxins are present in Aspergillus section Flavi, albeit never in the same species. Some of the most efficient producers of aflatoxins and ochratoxins have not been described yet. Using a polyphasic approach combining phenotype, physiology, sequence and extrolite data, we describe here eight new species in section Flavi. Phylogenetically, section Flavi is split in eight clades and the section currently contains 33 species. Two species only produce aflatoxin B1 and B2 (A. pseudotamarii and A. togoensis), and 14 species are able to produce aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2: three newly described species A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii and A. cerealis in addition to A. arachidicola, A. minisclerotigenes, A. mottae, A. luteovirescens (formerly A. bombycis), A. nomius, A. novoparasiticus, A. parasiticus, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudonomius, A. sergii and A. transmontanensis. It is generally accepted that A. flavus is unable to produce type G aflatoxins, but here we report on Korean strains that also produce aflatoxin G1 and G2. One strain of A. bertholletius can produce the immediate aflatoxin precursor 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin, and one strain of Aspergillus sojae and two strains of Aspergillus alliaceus produced versicolorins. Strains of the domesticated forms of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, A. oryzae and A. sojae, respectively, lost their ability to produce aflatoxins, and from the remaining phylogenetically closely related species (belonging to the A. flavus-, A. tamarii-, A. bertholletius- and A. nomius-clades), only A. caelatus, A. subflavus and A. tamarii are unable to produce aflatoxins. With exception of A. togoensis in the A. coremiiformis-clade, all species in the phylogenetically more distant clades (A. alliaceus-, A. coremiiformis-, A. leporis- and A. avenaceus-clade) are unable to produce aflatoxins. Three out of the four species in the A. alliaceus-clade can produce the mycotoxin ochratoxin A: A. alliaceus s. str. and two new species described here as A. neoalliaceus and A. vandermerwei. Eight species produced the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid: A. bertholletius, A. caelatus, A. luteovirescens, A. nomius, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudonomius, A. pseudotamarii and A. tamarii while the related mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid was produced by 13 species: A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii, A. bertholletius, A. cerealis, A. flavus, A. minisclerotigenes, A. mottae, A. oryzae, A. pipericola, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudotamarii, A. sergii and A. tamarii. Furthermore, A. hancockii produced speradine A, a compound related to cyclopiazonic acid. Selected A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii, A. cerealis, A. flavus, A. minisclerotigenes, A. pipericola and A. sergii strains produced small sclerotia containing the mycotoxin aflatrem. Kojic acid has been found in all species in section Flavi, except A. avenaceus and A. coremiiformis. Only six species in the section did not produce any known mycotoxins: A. aspearensis, A. coremiiformis, A. lanosus, A. leporis, A. sojae and A. subflavus. An overview of other small molecule extrolites produced in Aspergillus section Flavi is given.",
keywords = "Aflatoxins, Aspergillus, Cyclopiazonic acid, Section Flavi, Tenuazonic acid",
author = "Frisvad, {Jens Christian} and V. Hubka and Ezekiel, {C. N.} and Hong, {S. B.} and A. Nov{\'a}kov{\'a} and Chen, {A. J.} and M. Arzanlou and Larsen, {T. O.} and F. Sklen{\'a}ř and W. Mahakarnchanakul and Samson, {R. A.} and J. Houbraken",
note = "This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.simyco.2018.06.001",
language = "English",
volume = "93",
pages = "1--63",
journal = "Studies in Mycology",
issn = "0166-0616",
publisher = "Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures",

}

Frisvad, JC, Hubka, V, Ezekiel, CN, Hong, SB, Nováková, A, Chen, AJ, Arzanlou, M, Larsen, TO, Sklenář, F, Mahakarnchanakul, W, Samson, RA & Houbraken, J 2019, 'Taxonomy of Aspergillus section Flavi and their production of aflatoxins, ochratoxins and other mycotoxins', Studies in Mycology, vol. 93, pp. 1-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2018.06.001

Taxonomy of Aspergillus section Flavi and their production of aflatoxins, ochratoxins and other mycotoxins. / Frisvad, Jens Christian; Hubka, V.; Ezekiel, C. N.; Hong, S. B.; Nováková, A.; Chen, A. J.; Arzanlou, M.; Larsen, T. O.; Sklenář, F.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Samson, R. A.; Houbraken, J.

In: Studies in Mycology, Vol. 93, 2019, p. 1-63.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Taxonomy of Aspergillus section Flavi and their production of aflatoxins, ochratoxins and other mycotoxins

AU - Frisvad, Jens Christian

AU - Hubka, V.

AU - Ezekiel, C. N.

AU - Hong, S. B.

AU - Nováková, A.

AU - Chen, A. J.

AU - Arzanlou, M.

AU - Larsen, T. O.

AU - Sklenář, F.

AU - Mahakarnchanakul, W.

AU - Samson, R. A.

AU - Houbraken, J.

N1 - This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Aflatoxins and ochratoxins are among the most important mycotoxins of all and producers of both types of mycotoxins are present in Aspergillus section Flavi, albeit never in the same species. Some of the most efficient producers of aflatoxins and ochratoxins have not been described yet. Using a polyphasic approach combining phenotype, physiology, sequence and extrolite data, we describe here eight new species in section Flavi. Phylogenetically, section Flavi is split in eight clades and the section currently contains 33 species. Two species only produce aflatoxin B1 and B2 (A. pseudotamarii and A. togoensis), and 14 species are able to produce aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2: three newly described species A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii and A. cerealis in addition to A. arachidicola, A. minisclerotigenes, A. mottae, A. luteovirescens (formerly A. bombycis), A. nomius, A. novoparasiticus, A. parasiticus, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudonomius, A. sergii and A. transmontanensis. It is generally accepted that A. flavus is unable to produce type G aflatoxins, but here we report on Korean strains that also produce aflatoxin G1 and G2. One strain of A. bertholletius can produce the immediate aflatoxin precursor 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin, and one strain of Aspergillus sojae and two strains of Aspergillus alliaceus produced versicolorins. Strains of the domesticated forms of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, A. oryzae and A. sojae, respectively, lost their ability to produce aflatoxins, and from the remaining phylogenetically closely related species (belonging to the A. flavus-, A. tamarii-, A. bertholletius- and A. nomius-clades), only A. caelatus, A. subflavus and A. tamarii are unable to produce aflatoxins. With exception of A. togoensis in the A. coremiiformis-clade, all species in the phylogenetically more distant clades (A. alliaceus-, A. coremiiformis-, A. leporis- and A. avenaceus-clade) are unable to produce aflatoxins. Three out of the four species in the A. alliaceus-clade can produce the mycotoxin ochratoxin A: A. alliaceus s. str. and two new species described here as A. neoalliaceus and A. vandermerwei. Eight species produced the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid: A. bertholletius, A. caelatus, A. luteovirescens, A. nomius, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudonomius, A. pseudotamarii and A. tamarii while the related mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid was produced by 13 species: A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii, A. bertholletius, A. cerealis, A. flavus, A. minisclerotigenes, A. mottae, A. oryzae, A. pipericola, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudotamarii, A. sergii and A. tamarii. Furthermore, A. hancockii produced speradine A, a compound related to cyclopiazonic acid. Selected A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii, A. cerealis, A. flavus, A. minisclerotigenes, A. pipericola and A. sergii strains produced small sclerotia containing the mycotoxin aflatrem. Kojic acid has been found in all species in section Flavi, except A. avenaceus and A. coremiiformis. Only six species in the section did not produce any known mycotoxins: A. aspearensis, A. coremiiformis, A. lanosus, A. leporis, A. sojae and A. subflavus. An overview of other small molecule extrolites produced in Aspergillus section Flavi is given.

AB - Aflatoxins and ochratoxins are among the most important mycotoxins of all and producers of both types of mycotoxins are present in Aspergillus section Flavi, albeit never in the same species. Some of the most efficient producers of aflatoxins and ochratoxins have not been described yet. Using a polyphasic approach combining phenotype, physiology, sequence and extrolite data, we describe here eight new species in section Flavi. Phylogenetically, section Flavi is split in eight clades and the section currently contains 33 species. Two species only produce aflatoxin B1 and B2 (A. pseudotamarii and A. togoensis), and 14 species are able to produce aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2: three newly described species A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii and A. cerealis in addition to A. arachidicola, A. minisclerotigenes, A. mottae, A. luteovirescens (formerly A. bombycis), A. nomius, A. novoparasiticus, A. parasiticus, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudonomius, A. sergii and A. transmontanensis. It is generally accepted that A. flavus is unable to produce type G aflatoxins, but here we report on Korean strains that also produce aflatoxin G1 and G2. One strain of A. bertholletius can produce the immediate aflatoxin precursor 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin, and one strain of Aspergillus sojae and two strains of Aspergillus alliaceus produced versicolorins. Strains of the domesticated forms of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, A. oryzae and A. sojae, respectively, lost their ability to produce aflatoxins, and from the remaining phylogenetically closely related species (belonging to the A. flavus-, A. tamarii-, A. bertholletius- and A. nomius-clades), only A. caelatus, A. subflavus and A. tamarii are unable to produce aflatoxins. With exception of A. togoensis in the A. coremiiformis-clade, all species in the phylogenetically more distant clades (A. alliaceus-, A. coremiiformis-, A. leporis- and A. avenaceus-clade) are unable to produce aflatoxins. Three out of the four species in the A. alliaceus-clade can produce the mycotoxin ochratoxin A: A. alliaceus s. str. and two new species described here as A. neoalliaceus and A. vandermerwei. Eight species produced the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid: A. bertholletius, A. caelatus, A. luteovirescens, A. nomius, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudonomius, A. pseudotamarii and A. tamarii while the related mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid was produced by 13 species: A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii, A. bertholletius, A. cerealis, A. flavus, A. minisclerotigenes, A. mottae, A. oryzae, A. pipericola, A. pseudocaelatus, A. pseudotamarii, A. sergii and A. tamarii. Furthermore, A. hancockii produced speradine A, a compound related to cyclopiazonic acid. Selected A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii, A. cerealis, A. flavus, A. minisclerotigenes, A. pipericola and A. sergii strains produced small sclerotia containing the mycotoxin aflatrem. Kojic acid has been found in all species in section Flavi, except A. avenaceus and A. coremiiformis. Only six species in the section did not produce any known mycotoxins: A. aspearensis, A. coremiiformis, A. lanosus, A. leporis, A. sojae and A. subflavus. An overview of other small molecule extrolites produced in Aspergillus section Flavi is given.

KW - Aflatoxins

KW - Aspergillus

KW - Cyclopiazonic acid

KW - Section Flavi

KW - Tenuazonic acid

U2 - 10.1016/j.simyco.2018.06.001

DO - 10.1016/j.simyco.2018.06.001

M3 - Journal article

VL - 93

SP - 1

EP - 63

JO - Studies in Mycology

JF - Studies in Mycology

SN - 0166-0616

ER -