Product-systems interact with their surrounding systems and together form a System-of-Systems (SoS). The interactions lead to emerging behaviour from the SoS, including rebound effects that influence the actual environmental impact of changes in the product-systems. Accordingly, the SoS impact can be higher than the sum of impacts from its interacting product-systems. This paper proposes a modelling approach for life cycle assessment of a product-system considering emerging behaviours in its SoS context beyond what is normally considered in a consequential LCA. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a transportation system case study.
- Life cycle
- System of systems