System interaction, System of Systems, and environmental impact of products

Shiva Abdoli, Sami Kara*, Michael Zwicky Hauschild

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Product-systems interact with their surrounding systems and together form a System-of-Systems (SoS). The interactions lead to emerging behaviour from the SoS, including rebound effects that influence the actual environmental impact of changes in the product-systems. Accordingly, the SoS impact can be higher than the sum of impacts from its interacting product-systems. This paper proposes a modelling approach for life cycle assessment of a product-system considering emerging behaviours in its SoS context beyond what is normally considered in a consequential LCA. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a transportation system case study.
Original languageEnglish
JournalCIRP annals
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)17-20
Number of pages4
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Environment
  • Life cycle
  • System of systems

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