Synthesis of Poly-Sodium-Acrylate (PSA)-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Use in Forward Osmosis Draw Solutions

Irena Ban*, Sabina Markuš, Sašo Gyergyek, Miha Drofenik, Jasmina Korenak, Claus Helix-Nielsen, Irena Petrinić

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

The synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with hydrophilic poly-sodium-acrylate (PSA) ligands was studied to assess PSA-MNP complexes as draw solution (DS) solutes in forward osmosis (FO). For MNP-based DS, the surface modification and the size of the MNPs are two crucial factors to achieve a high osmolality. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NP) with functional groups attached may represent the ideal DS where chemical modifications of the NPs can be used in optimizing the DS osmolality and the magnetic properties allows for efficient recovery (DS re-concentration) using an external magnetic field. In this study MNPs with diameters of 4 nm have been prepared by controlled chemical co-precipitation of magnetite phase from aqueous solutions containing suitable salts of Fe2+ and Fe3+ under inert atmosphere and a pure magnetite phase could be verified by X-ray diffraction. Magnetic colloid suspensions containing PSA-coated MNPs with three different molar ratios of PSA:MNP = 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 were prepared and assessed in terms of osmotic pressure, aggregation propensity and magnetization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of PSA on coated MNPs and pristine PSA-MNPs with a molar ratio PSA:MNP = 1:1 exhibited an osmotic pressure of 30 bar. Molar ratios of PSA:MNP = 1:2 and 1:3 lead to the formation of less stabile magnetic colloid solutions, which led to the formation of aggregates with larger average hydrodynamic sizes and modest osmotic pressures (5.5 bar and 0.2 bar, respectively). After purification with ultrafiltration, the 1:1 nanoparticles exhibited an osmotic pressure of 9 bar with no aggregation and a sufficient magnetization of 25 emu/g to allow for DS regeneration using an external magnetic field. However, it was observed that the amount of PSA molecules attached to the MNPs decreased during DS recycling steps, leaving only strong chelate-bonded core-shell PSA as coating on the MNPs. This demonstrates the crucial role of MNP coating robustness in designing an efficient MNP-based DS for FO.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNanomaterials
Volume9
Issue number9
Number of pages17
ISSN2079-4991
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • poly-sodium-acrylate
  • osmotic pressure
  • forward osmosis
  • draw solution

Cite this

Ban, Irena ; Markuš, Sabina ; Gyergyek, Sašo ; Drofenik, Miha ; Korenak, Jasmina ; Helix-Nielsen, Claus ; Petrinić, Irena. / Synthesis of Poly-Sodium-Acrylate (PSA)-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Use in Forward Osmosis Draw Solutions. In: Nanomaterials. 2019 ; Vol. 9, No. 9.
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title = "Synthesis of Poly-Sodium-Acrylate (PSA)-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Use in Forward Osmosis Draw Solutions",
abstract = "The synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with hydrophilic poly-sodium-acrylate (PSA) ligands was studied to assess PSA-MNP complexes as draw solution (DS) solutes in forward osmosis (FO). For MNP-based DS, the surface modification and the size of the MNPs are two crucial factors to achieve a high osmolality. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NP) with functional groups attached may represent the ideal DS where chemical modifications of the NPs can be used in optimizing the DS osmolality and the magnetic properties allows for efficient recovery (DS re-concentration) using an external magnetic field. In this study MNPs with diameters of 4 nm have been prepared by controlled chemical co-precipitation of magnetite phase from aqueous solutions containing suitable salts of Fe2+ and Fe3+ under inert atmosphere and a pure magnetite phase could be verified by X-ray diffraction. Magnetic colloid suspensions containing PSA-coated MNPs with three different molar ratios of PSA:MNP = 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 were prepared and assessed in terms of osmotic pressure, aggregation propensity and magnetization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of PSA on coated MNPs and pristine PSA-MNPs with a molar ratio PSA:MNP = 1:1 exhibited an osmotic pressure of 30 bar. Molar ratios of PSA:MNP = 1:2 and 1:3 lead to the formation of less stabile magnetic colloid solutions, which led to the formation of aggregates with larger average hydrodynamic sizes and modest osmotic pressures (5.5 bar and 0.2 bar, respectively). After purification with ultrafiltration, the 1:1 nanoparticles exhibited an osmotic pressure of 9 bar with no aggregation and a sufficient magnetization of 25 emu/g to allow for DS regeneration using an external magnetic field. However, it was observed that the amount of PSA molecules attached to the MNPs decreased during DS recycling steps, leaving only strong chelate-bonded core-shell PSA as coating on the MNPs. This demonstrates the crucial role of MNP coating robustness in designing an efficient MNP-based DS for FO.",
keywords = "magnetic nanoparticles, poly-sodium-acrylate, osmotic pressure, forward osmosis, draw solution",
author = "Irena Ban and Sabina Markuš and Sašo Gyergyek and Miha Drofenik and Jasmina Korenak and Claus Helix-Nielsen and Irena Petrinić",
year = "2019",
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language = "English",
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Synthesis of Poly-Sodium-Acrylate (PSA)-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Use in Forward Osmosis Draw Solutions. / Ban, Irena; Markuš, Sabina; Gyergyek, Sašo; Drofenik, Miha; Korenak, Jasmina; Helix-Nielsen, Claus; Petrinić, Irena.

In: Nanomaterials, Vol. 9, No. 9, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Synthesis of Poly-Sodium-Acrylate (PSA)-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Use in Forward Osmosis Draw Solutions

AU - Ban, Irena

AU - Markuš, Sabina

AU - Gyergyek, Sašo

AU - Drofenik, Miha

AU - Korenak, Jasmina

AU - Helix-Nielsen, Claus

AU - Petrinić, Irena

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with hydrophilic poly-sodium-acrylate (PSA) ligands was studied to assess PSA-MNP complexes as draw solution (DS) solutes in forward osmosis (FO). For MNP-based DS, the surface modification and the size of the MNPs are two crucial factors to achieve a high osmolality. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NP) with functional groups attached may represent the ideal DS where chemical modifications of the NPs can be used in optimizing the DS osmolality and the magnetic properties allows for efficient recovery (DS re-concentration) using an external magnetic field. In this study MNPs with diameters of 4 nm have been prepared by controlled chemical co-precipitation of magnetite phase from aqueous solutions containing suitable salts of Fe2+ and Fe3+ under inert atmosphere and a pure magnetite phase could be verified by X-ray diffraction. Magnetic colloid suspensions containing PSA-coated MNPs with three different molar ratios of PSA:MNP = 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 were prepared and assessed in terms of osmotic pressure, aggregation propensity and magnetization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of PSA on coated MNPs and pristine PSA-MNPs with a molar ratio PSA:MNP = 1:1 exhibited an osmotic pressure of 30 bar. Molar ratios of PSA:MNP = 1:2 and 1:3 lead to the formation of less stabile magnetic colloid solutions, which led to the formation of aggregates with larger average hydrodynamic sizes and modest osmotic pressures (5.5 bar and 0.2 bar, respectively). After purification with ultrafiltration, the 1:1 nanoparticles exhibited an osmotic pressure of 9 bar with no aggregation and a sufficient magnetization of 25 emu/g to allow for DS regeneration using an external magnetic field. However, it was observed that the amount of PSA molecules attached to the MNPs decreased during DS recycling steps, leaving only strong chelate-bonded core-shell PSA as coating on the MNPs. This demonstrates the crucial role of MNP coating robustness in designing an efficient MNP-based DS for FO.

AB - The synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with hydrophilic poly-sodium-acrylate (PSA) ligands was studied to assess PSA-MNP complexes as draw solution (DS) solutes in forward osmosis (FO). For MNP-based DS, the surface modification and the size of the MNPs are two crucial factors to achieve a high osmolality. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NP) with functional groups attached may represent the ideal DS where chemical modifications of the NPs can be used in optimizing the DS osmolality and the magnetic properties allows for efficient recovery (DS re-concentration) using an external magnetic field. In this study MNPs with diameters of 4 nm have been prepared by controlled chemical co-precipitation of magnetite phase from aqueous solutions containing suitable salts of Fe2+ and Fe3+ under inert atmosphere and a pure magnetite phase could be verified by X-ray diffraction. Magnetic colloid suspensions containing PSA-coated MNPs with three different molar ratios of PSA:MNP = 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 were prepared and assessed in terms of osmotic pressure, aggregation propensity and magnetization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of PSA on coated MNPs and pristine PSA-MNPs with a molar ratio PSA:MNP = 1:1 exhibited an osmotic pressure of 30 bar. Molar ratios of PSA:MNP = 1:2 and 1:3 lead to the formation of less stabile magnetic colloid solutions, which led to the formation of aggregates with larger average hydrodynamic sizes and modest osmotic pressures (5.5 bar and 0.2 bar, respectively). After purification with ultrafiltration, the 1:1 nanoparticles exhibited an osmotic pressure of 9 bar with no aggregation and a sufficient magnetization of 25 emu/g to allow for DS regeneration using an external magnetic field. However, it was observed that the amount of PSA molecules attached to the MNPs decreased during DS recycling steps, leaving only strong chelate-bonded core-shell PSA as coating on the MNPs. This demonstrates the crucial role of MNP coating robustness in designing an efficient MNP-based DS for FO.

KW - magnetic nanoparticles

KW - poly-sodium-acrylate

KW - osmotic pressure

KW - forward osmosis

KW - draw solution

U2 - 10.3390/nano9091238

DO - 10.3390/nano9091238

M3 - Journal article

VL - 9

JO - Nanomaterials

JF - Nanomaterials

SN - 2079-4991

IS - 9

ER -