Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)

B.W. Hansen, Hans Henrik Jakobsen, Anders Peter Andersen, R. Almeda, T.M. Pedersen, A.M. Christensen, B. Nilsson

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The behavior of the ubiquitous estuarine planktotrophic spionid polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata was studied. We describe ontogenetic changes in morphology, swimming speed and feeding rates and have developed a simple swimming model using low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. In the model we assumed that the ciliary swimming apparatus is primarily composed of the prototroch and secondarily by the telotroch. The model predicted swimming speeds and feeding rates that corresponded well with the measured speeds and rates. Applying empirical data to the model, we were able to explain the profound decrease in specific feeding rates and the observed increase in the difference between upward and downward swimming speeds with larval size. We estimated a critical larval length above which the buoyancy-corrected weight of the larva exceeds the propulsion force generated by the ciliary swimming apparatus and thus forces the larva to the bottom. This modeled critical larval length corresponded to approximately 1 mm, at which, according to the literature, competence for metamorphosis and no more length increase is observed. These findings may have general implications for all planktivorous polychaete larvae that feed without trailing threads. We observed bell shaped particle retention spectra with a minimum prey size of approximately 4 m equivalent spherical diameter, and we found that an ontogenetic increase in maximum prey size add to a reduction in intra-specific food competition in the various larval stages. In a grazing experiment using natural seawater, ciliates were cleared approximately 50% more efficiently than similar sized dinoflagellates. The prey sizes retainable for P. ciliata larvae covers the microplankton fraction and includes non-motile as well as motile prey items, which is why the larvae are trophically positioned among the copepods and dinoflagellates. Not only do larval morphology and behavior govern larval feeding, prey behavior also influences the feeding efficiency of Polydora ciliata.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Volume213
Issue number18
Pages (from-to)3237-3246
ISSN0022-0949
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Cite this

Hansen, B. W., Jakobsen, H. H., Andersen, A. P., Almeda, R., Pedersen, T. M., Christensen, A. M., & Nilsson, B. (2010). Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston). Journal of Experimental Biology, 213(18), 3237-3246. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.038810
Hansen, B.W. ; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik ; Andersen, Anders Peter ; Almeda, R. ; Pedersen, T.M. ; Christensen, A.M. ; Nilsson, B. / Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston). In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2010 ; Vol. 213, No. 18. pp. 3237-3246.
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abstract = "The behavior of the ubiquitous estuarine planktotrophic spionid polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata was studied. We describe ontogenetic changes in morphology, swimming speed and feeding rates and have developed a simple swimming model using low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. In the model we assumed that the ciliary swimming apparatus is primarily composed of the prototroch and secondarily by the telotroch. The model predicted swimming speeds and feeding rates that corresponded well with the measured speeds and rates. Applying empirical data to the model, we were able to explain the profound decrease in specific feeding rates and the observed increase in the difference between upward and downward swimming speeds with larval size. We estimated a critical larval length above which the buoyancy-corrected weight of the larva exceeds the propulsion force generated by the ciliary swimming apparatus and thus forces the larva to the bottom. This modeled critical larval length corresponded to approximately 1 mm, at which, according to the literature, competence for metamorphosis and no more length increase is observed. These findings may have general implications for all planktivorous polychaete larvae that feed without trailing threads. We observed bell shaped particle retention spectra with a minimum prey size of approximately 4 m equivalent spherical diameter, and we found that an ontogenetic increase in maximum prey size add to a reduction in intra-specific food competition in the various larval stages. In a grazing experiment using natural seawater, ciliates were cleared approximately 50{\%} more efficiently than similar sized dinoflagellates. The prey sizes retainable for P. ciliata larvae covers the microplankton fraction and includes non-motile as well as motile prey items, which is why the larvae are trophically positioned among the copepods and dinoflagellates. Not only do larval morphology and behavior govern larval feeding, prey behavior also influences the feeding efficiency of Polydora ciliata.",
author = "B.W. Hansen and Jakobsen, {Hans Henrik} and Andersen, {Anders Peter} and R. Almeda and T.M. Pedersen and A.M. Christensen and B. Nilsson",
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Hansen, BW, Jakobsen, HH, Andersen, AP, Almeda, R, Pedersen, TM, Christensen, AM & Nilsson, B 2010, 'Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)', Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 213, no. 18, pp. 3237-3246. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.038810

Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston). / Hansen, B.W.; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Andersen, Anders Peter; Almeda, R.; Pedersen, T.M.; Christensen, A.M.; Nilsson, B.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 213, No. 18, 2010, p. 3237-3246.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)

AU - Hansen, B.W.

AU - Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

AU - Andersen, Anders Peter

AU - Almeda, R.

AU - Pedersen, T.M.

AU - Christensen, A.M.

AU - Nilsson, B.

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - The behavior of the ubiquitous estuarine planktotrophic spionid polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata was studied. We describe ontogenetic changes in morphology, swimming speed and feeding rates and have developed a simple swimming model using low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. In the model we assumed that the ciliary swimming apparatus is primarily composed of the prototroch and secondarily by the telotroch. The model predicted swimming speeds and feeding rates that corresponded well with the measured speeds and rates. Applying empirical data to the model, we were able to explain the profound decrease in specific feeding rates and the observed increase in the difference between upward and downward swimming speeds with larval size. We estimated a critical larval length above which the buoyancy-corrected weight of the larva exceeds the propulsion force generated by the ciliary swimming apparatus and thus forces the larva to the bottom. This modeled critical larval length corresponded to approximately 1 mm, at which, according to the literature, competence for metamorphosis and no more length increase is observed. These findings may have general implications for all planktivorous polychaete larvae that feed without trailing threads. We observed bell shaped particle retention spectra with a minimum prey size of approximately 4 m equivalent spherical diameter, and we found that an ontogenetic increase in maximum prey size add to a reduction in intra-specific food competition in the various larval stages. In a grazing experiment using natural seawater, ciliates were cleared approximately 50% more efficiently than similar sized dinoflagellates. The prey sizes retainable for P. ciliata larvae covers the microplankton fraction and includes non-motile as well as motile prey items, which is why the larvae are trophically positioned among the copepods and dinoflagellates. Not only do larval morphology and behavior govern larval feeding, prey behavior also influences the feeding efficiency of Polydora ciliata.

AB - The behavior of the ubiquitous estuarine planktotrophic spionid polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata was studied. We describe ontogenetic changes in morphology, swimming speed and feeding rates and have developed a simple swimming model using low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. In the model we assumed that the ciliary swimming apparatus is primarily composed of the prototroch and secondarily by the telotroch. The model predicted swimming speeds and feeding rates that corresponded well with the measured speeds and rates. Applying empirical data to the model, we were able to explain the profound decrease in specific feeding rates and the observed increase in the difference between upward and downward swimming speeds with larval size. We estimated a critical larval length above which the buoyancy-corrected weight of the larva exceeds the propulsion force generated by the ciliary swimming apparatus and thus forces the larva to the bottom. This modeled critical larval length corresponded to approximately 1 mm, at which, according to the literature, competence for metamorphosis and no more length increase is observed. These findings may have general implications for all planktivorous polychaete larvae that feed without trailing threads. We observed bell shaped particle retention spectra with a minimum prey size of approximately 4 m equivalent spherical diameter, and we found that an ontogenetic increase in maximum prey size add to a reduction in intra-specific food competition in the various larval stages. In a grazing experiment using natural seawater, ciliates were cleared approximately 50% more efficiently than similar sized dinoflagellates. The prey sizes retainable for P. ciliata larvae covers the microplankton fraction and includes non-motile as well as motile prey items, which is why the larvae are trophically positioned among the copepods and dinoflagellates. Not only do larval morphology and behavior govern larval feeding, prey behavior also influences the feeding efficiency of Polydora ciliata.

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.038810

DO - 10.1242/jeb.038810

M3 - Journal article

VL - 213

SP - 3237

EP - 3246

JO - Journal of Experimental Biology

JF - Journal of Experimental Biology

SN - 0022-0949

IS - 18

ER -