This paper addresses the role of surfaces at the micrometric and nanometric length scales. Applications, functional behaviour, and manufacturing issues are reviewed with respect to state-of-the-art and emerging products fabricated using high precision technologies. Examples of surfaces obtained with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are presented, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, light and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface properties at micro and nanoscale are considered, including geometry as well as physical and chemical properties. Different manufacturing processes are reviewed with respect to surface fabrication, encompassing conventional machining, microfabrication, and nanomanipulation. Surface metrology at micro and nanoscale is briefly addressed, and its fundamental importance strongly emphasized.