Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3

Elena Meirzadeh, Dennis Valbjørn Christensen, Evgeniy Makagon, Hagai Cohen, Irit Rosenhek-Goldian, Erie H Morales, Arghya Bhowmik, Juan Maria G Lastra, Andrew M Rappe, David Ehre, Meir Lahav, Nini Pryds*, Igor Lubomirsky

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Symmetry-imposed restrictions on the number of available pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials remain a major limitation as 22 out of 32 crystallographic material classes exhibit neither pyroelectricity nor piezoelectricity. Yet, by breaking the lattice symmetry it is possible to circumvent this limitation. Here, using a unique technique for measuring transient currents upon rapid heating, direct experimental evidence is provided that despite the fact that bulk SrTiO3 is not pyroelectric, the (100) surface of TiO2 -terminated SrTiO3 is intrinsically pyroelectric at room temperature. The pyroelectric layer is found to be ≈1 nm thick and, surprisingly, its polarization is comparable with that of strongly polar materials such as BaTiO3. The pyroelectric effect can be tuned ON/OFF by the formation or removal of a nanometric SiO2 layer. Using density functional theory, the pyroelectricity is found to be a result of polar surface relaxation, which can be suppressed by varying the lattice symmetry breaking using a SiO2 capping layer. The observation of pyroelectricity emerging at the SrTiO3 surface also implies that it is intrinsically piezoelectric. These findings may pave the way for observing and tailoring piezo- and pyroelectricity in any material through appropriate breaking of symmetry at surfaces and artificial nanostructures such as heterointerfaces and superlattices.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1904733
JournalAdvanced Materials
Volume31
Issue number44
Number of pages5
ISSN0935-9648
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Broken symmetry
  • SrTiO3
  • Strontium titanate
  • Surface pyroelectricity

Cite this

Meirzadeh, E., Christensen, D. V., Makagon, E., Cohen, H., Rosenhek-Goldian, I., Morales, E. H., ... Lubomirsky, I. (2019). Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3. Advanced Materials, 31(44), [1904733]. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201904733
Meirzadeh, Elena ; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn ; Makagon, Evgeniy ; Cohen, Hagai ; Rosenhek-Goldian, Irit ; Morales, Erie H ; Bhowmik, Arghya ; Lastra, Juan Maria G ; Rappe, Andrew M ; Ehre, David ; Lahav, Meir ; Pryds, Nini ; Lubomirsky, Igor. / Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3. In: Advanced Materials. 2019 ; Vol. 31, No. 44.
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abstract = "Symmetry-imposed restrictions on the number of available pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials remain a major limitation as 22 out of 32 crystallographic material classes exhibit neither pyroelectricity nor piezoelectricity. Yet, by breaking the lattice symmetry it is possible to circumvent this limitation. Here, using a unique technique for measuring transient currents upon rapid heating, direct experimental evidence is provided that despite the fact that bulk SrTiO3 is not pyroelectric, the (100) surface of TiO2 -terminated SrTiO3 is intrinsically pyroelectric at room temperature. The pyroelectric layer is found to be ≈1 nm thick and, surprisingly, its polarization is comparable with that of strongly polar materials such as BaTiO3. The pyroelectric effect can be tuned ON/OFF by the formation or removal of a nanometric SiO2 layer. Using density functional theory, the pyroelectricity is found to be a result of polar surface relaxation, which can be suppressed by varying the lattice symmetry breaking using a SiO2 capping layer. The observation of pyroelectricity emerging at the SrTiO3 surface also implies that it is intrinsically piezoelectric. These findings may pave the way for observing and tailoring piezo- and pyroelectricity in any material through appropriate breaking of symmetry at surfaces and artificial nanostructures such as heterointerfaces and superlattices.",
keywords = "Broken symmetry, SrTiO3, Strontium titanate, Surface pyroelectricity",
author = "Elena Meirzadeh and Christensen, {Dennis Valbj{\o}rn} and Evgeniy Makagon and Hagai Cohen and Irit Rosenhek-Goldian and Morales, {Erie H} and Arghya Bhowmik and Lastra, {Juan Maria G} and Rappe, {Andrew M} and David Ehre and Meir Lahav and Nini Pryds and Igor Lubomirsky",
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Meirzadeh, E, Christensen, DV, Makagon, E, Cohen, H, Rosenhek-Goldian, I, Morales, EH, Bhowmik, A, Lastra, JMG, Rappe, AM, Ehre, D, Lahav, M, Pryds, N & Lubomirsky, I 2019, 'Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3', Advanced Materials, vol. 31, no. 44, 1904733. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201904733

Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3. / Meirzadeh, Elena; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Makagon, Evgeniy; Cohen, Hagai; Rosenhek-Goldian, Irit; Morales, Erie H; Bhowmik, Arghya; Lastra, Juan Maria G; Rappe, Andrew M; Ehre, David; Lahav, Meir; Pryds, Nini; Lubomirsky, Igor.

In: Advanced Materials, Vol. 31, No. 44, 1904733, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3

AU - Meirzadeh, Elena

AU - Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn

AU - Makagon, Evgeniy

AU - Cohen, Hagai

AU - Rosenhek-Goldian, Irit

AU - Morales, Erie H

AU - Bhowmik, Arghya

AU - Lastra, Juan Maria G

AU - Rappe, Andrew M

AU - Ehre, David

AU - Lahav, Meir

AU - Pryds, Nini

AU - Lubomirsky, Igor

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Symmetry-imposed restrictions on the number of available pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials remain a major limitation as 22 out of 32 crystallographic material classes exhibit neither pyroelectricity nor piezoelectricity. Yet, by breaking the lattice symmetry it is possible to circumvent this limitation. Here, using a unique technique for measuring transient currents upon rapid heating, direct experimental evidence is provided that despite the fact that bulk SrTiO3 is not pyroelectric, the (100) surface of TiO2 -terminated SrTiO3 is intrinsically pyroelectric at room temperature. The pyroelectric layer is found to be ≈1 nm thick and, surprisingly, its polarization is comparable with that of strongly polar materials such as BaTiO3. The pyroelectric effect can be tuned ON/OFF by the formation or removal of a nanometric SiO2 layer. Using density functional theory, the pyroelectricity is found to be a result of polar surface relaxation, which can be suppressed by varying the lattice symmetry breaking using a SiO2 capping layer. The observation of pyroelectricity emerging at the SrTiO3 surface also implies that it is intrinsically piezoelectric. These findings may pave the way for observing and tailoring piezo- and pyroelectricity in any material through appropriate breaking of symmetry at surfaces and artificial nanostructures such as heterointerfaces and superlattices.

AB - Symmetry-imposed restrictions on the number of available pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials remain a major limitation as 22 out of 32 crystallographic material classes exhibit neither pyroelectricity nor piezoelectricity. Yet, by breaking the lattice symmetry it is possible to circumvent this limitation. Here, using a unique technique for measuring transient currents upon rapid heating, direct experimental evidence is provided that despite the fact that bulk SrTiO3 is not pyroelectric, the (100) surface of TiO2 -terminated SrTiO3 is intrinsically pyroelectric at room temperature. The pyroelectric layer is found to be ≈1 nm thick and, surprisingly, its polarization is comparable with that of strongly polar materials such as BaTiO3. The pyroelectric effect can be tuned ON/OFF by the formation or removal of a nanometric SiO2 layer. Using density functional theory, the pyroelectricity is found to be a result of polar surface relaxation, which can be suppressed by varying the lattice symmetry breaking using a SiO2 capping layer. The observation of pyroelectricity emerging at the SrTiO3 surface also implies that it is intrinsically piezoelectric. These findings may pave the way for observing and tailoring piezo- and pyroelectricity in any material through appropriate breaking of symmetry at surfaces and artificial nanostructures such as heterointerfaces and superlattices.

KW - Broken symmetry

KW - SrTiO3

KW - Strontium titanate

KW - Surface pyroelectricity

U2 - 10.1002/adma.201904733

DO - 10.1002/adma.201904733

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 31532884

VL - 31

JO - Advanced Materials

JF - Advanced Materials

SN - 0935-9648

IS - 44

M1 - 1904733

ER -

Meirzadeh E, Christensen DV, Makagon E, Cohen H, Rosenhek-Goldian I, Morales EH et al. Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3. Advanced Materials. 2019;31(44). 1904733. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201904733