Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry, optical scanning techniques, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These methods, based on acquisition of topography data from point by point scans, give quantitative information of heights with respect to position. Based on a different approach, the so-called integral methods produce parameters representing some average property of the surface under examination. Measurement methods, as well as their application and limitations, are briefly reviewed, including standardisation and traceability issues.
|Title of host publication||Springer Handbook of Materials Measurement Methods|
|Publication status||Published - 2006|