Glycoside hydrolase family 29 (GH29) encompasses α-L-fucosidases, i.e. enzymes which catalyze hydrolytic release of fucose from fucosylated glycans, including N- and O-linked glycans on proteins, and these α-L-fucosidases clearly play important roles in biology. GH29 enzymes work via a retaining exo-action mechanism, and some can catalyze transfucosylation. There is no formal subfamily division of GH29 α-L-fucosidases, but they are nonetheless divided into two subfamilies: GH29A having a range of substrate specificities, and GH29B having narrower substrate specificity. However, the sequence traits that determine substrate specificity and transglycosylation ability of GH29 enzymes are not well characterized. Here, we present a new functional map of family GH29 members based on peptide-motif clustering via CUPP (Conserved Unique Peptide Patterns), and compare substrate specificity and transglycosylation activity of 21 representative α-L-fucosidases across the 53 CUPP groups identified. The 21 enzymes exhibited different enzymatic rates on 8 test-substrates, CNP-Fuc, 2'FL, 3FL, Lewisa, Lewisx, Fuc-α1,6-GlcNAc, Fuc-α1,3-GlcNAc, and Fuc-α1,4-GlcNAc. Certain CUPP groups clearly harbored a particular type of enzymes, e.g. the majority of the enzymes having activity on Lewisa or Lewisx categorized in the same CUPP clusters. In general, CUPP was useful for resolving GH29 into functional diversity subgroups when considering hydrolytic activity. In contrast, the transglycosylation capacity of GH29 α-L-fucosidases was distributed across a range of CUPP groups. Transglycosylation thus appears to be a common trait among these enzymes, and not readily predicted from sequence comparison.
- Substrate specificity