Study of subsurface initiation mechanism for white etching crack formation

Annika Martina Diederichs, Soeren Barteldes, Alexander Schwedt, Joachim Mayer, Walter Holweger

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The present paper describes a novel way to detect early stages in the gradual transformation of SAE 52100 bearing steel material to white etching cracks (WEC). The underlying transformation is recorded and investigated by a complementary use of Barkhausen noise measurements, ultrasonic measurements and scanning electron microscopy. While ultrasonic measurements can only be used to detect cracks in a failed component, the recently improved Barkhausen noise measurement technique can be used to detect possible early stages of microstructural transformation. A cross section from a region without ultrasonic signal but with a Barkhausen signal has been investigated by the use of scanning electron microscopes in order to reveal possible pre-stages of WEC formation. These findings support that WEC are locally initiated in subsurface regions. Within those modified regions, carbides start to dissolve in consequence of deformation accumulation, which has been identified as an early state of WEA microstructure formation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMaterials Science and Technology
Volume32
Issue number11
Pages (from-to)1170-1178
Number of pages9
ISSN0267-0836
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Materials Science (all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Barkhausen noise
  • Bearing steel
  • Rolling contact fatigue
  • White etching area (WEA)
  • White etching cracks (WEC)
  • Acoustic noise measurement
  • Carbides
  • Cracks
  • Etching
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Signal detection
  • Ultrasonic applications
  • Ultrasonic measurement
  • Bearing steels
  • White etching areas
  • Crack detection
  • MATERIALS
  • METALLURGY
  • ROLLING-CONTACT FATIGUE
  • BEARING STEELS
  • HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT
  • BALL-BEARINGS
  • BUTTERFLIES
  • FLAKING
  • STRESS
  • DAMAGE
  • AREA

Cite this

Diederichs, A. M., Barteldes, S., Schwedt, A., Mayer, J., & Holweger, W. (2016). Study of subsurface initiation mechanism for white etching crack formation. Materials Science and Technology, 32(11), 1170-1178. https://doi.org/10.1080/02670836.2016.1155842
Diederichs, Annika Martina ; Barteldes, Soeren ; Schwedt, Alexander ; Mayer, Joachim ; Holweger, Walter. / Study of subsurface initiation mechanism for white etching crack formation. In: Materials Science and Technology. 2016 ; Vol. 32, No. 11. pp. 1170-1178.
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abstract = "The present paper describes a novel way to detect early stages in the gradual transformation of SAE 52100 bearing steel material to white etching cracks (WEC). The underlying transformation is recorded and investigated by a complementary use of Barkhausen noise measurements, ultrasonic measurements and scanning electron microscopy. While ultrasonic measurements can only be used to detect cracks in a failed component, the recently improved Barkhausen noise measurement technique can be used to detect possible early stages of microstructural transformation. A cross section from a region without ultrasonic signal but with a Barkhausen signal has been investigated by the use of scanning electron microscopes in order to reveal possible pre-stages of WEC formation. These findings support that WEC are locally initiated in subsurface regions. Within those modified regions, carbides start to dissolve in consequence of deformation accumulation, which has been identified as an early state of WEA microstructure formation.",
keywords = "Materials Science (all), Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Barkhausen noise, Bearing steel, Rolling contact fatigue, White etching area (WEA), White etching cracks (WEC), Acoustic noise measurement, Carbides, Cracks, Etching, Scanning electron microscopy, Signal detection, Ultrasonic applications, Ultrasonic measurement, Bearing steels, White etching areas, Crack detection, MATERIALS, METALLURGY, ROLLING-CONTACT FATIGUE, BEARING STEELS, HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT, BALL-BEARINGS, BUTTERFLIES, FLAKING, STRESS, DAMAGE, AREA",
author = "Diederichs, {Annika Martina} and Soeren Barteldes and Alexander Schwedt and Joachim Mayer and Walter Holweger",
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Diederichs, AM, Barteldes, S, Schwedt, A, Mayer, J & Holweger, W 2016, 'Study of subsurface initiation mechanism for white etching crack formation', Materials Science and Technology, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1170-1178. https://doi.org/10.1080/02670836.2016.1155842

Study of subsurface initiation mechanism for white etching crack formation. / Diederichs, Annika Martina; Barteldes, Soeren; Schwedt, Alexander; Mayer, Joachim; Holweger, Walter.

In: Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 32, No. 11, 2016, p. 1170-1178.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Study of subsurface initiation mechanism for white etching crack formation

AU - Diederichs, Annika Martina

AU - Barteldes, Soeren

AU - Schwedt, Alexander

AU - Mayer, Joachim

AU - Holweger, Walter

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - The present paper describes a novel way to detect early stages in the gradual transformation of SAE 52100 bearing steel material to white etching cracks (WEC). The underlying transformation is recorded and investigated by a complementary use of Barkhausen noise measurements, ultrasonic measurements and scanning electron microscopy. While ultrasonic measurements can only be used to detect cracks in a failed component, the recently improved Barkhausen noise measurement technique can be used to detect possible early stages of microstructural transformation. A cross section from a region without ultrasonic signal but with a Barkhausen signal has been investigated by the use of scanning electron microscopes in order to reveal possible pre-stages of WEC formation. These findings support that WEC are locally initiated in subsurface regions. Within those modified regions, carbides start to dissolve in consequence of deformation accumulation, which has been identified as an early state of WEA microstructure formation.

AB - The present paper describes a novel way to detect early stages in the gradual transformation of SAE 52100 bearing steel material to white etching cracks (WEC). The underlying transformation is recorded and investigated by a complementary use of Barkhausen noise measurements, ultrasonic measurements and scanning electron microscopy. While ultrasonic measurements can only be used to detect cracks in a failed component, the recently improved Barkhausen noise measurement technique can be used to detect possible early stages of microstructural transformation. A cross section from a region without ultrasonic signal but with a Barkhausen signal has been investigated by the use of scanning electron microscopes in order to reveal possible pre-stages of WEC formation. These findings support that WEC are locally initiated in subsurface regions. Within those modified regions, carbides start to dissolve in consequence of deformation accumulation, which has been identified as an early state of WEA microstructure formation.

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KW - Condensed Matter Physics

KW - Mechanics of Materials

KW - Mechanical Engineering

KW - Barkhausen noise

KW - Bearing steel

KW - Rolling contact fatigue

KW - White etching area (WEA)

KW - White etching cracks (WEC)

KW - Acoustic noise measurement

KW - Carbides

KW - Cracks

KW - Etching

KW - Scanning electron microscopy

KW - Signal detection

KW - Ultrasonic applications

KW - Ultrasonic measurement

KW - Bearing steels

KW - White etching areas

KW - Crack detection

KW - MATERIALS

KW - METALLURGY

KW - ROLLING-CONTACT FATIGUE

KW - BEARING STEELS

KW - HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT

KW - BALL-BEARINGS

KW - BUTTERFLIES

KW - FLAKING

KW - STRESS

KW - DAMAGE

KW - AREA

U2 - 10.1080/02670836.2016.1155842

DO - 10.1080/02670836.2016.1155842

M3 - Journal article

VL - 32

SP - 1170

EP - 1178

JO - Materials Science and Technology

JF - Materials Science and Technology

SN - 0267-0836

IS - 11

ER -