Structure, specificity and function of cyclomaltodextrinase, a multispecific enzyme of the alpha-amylase family

Kwan-Ha Park, Tae-Jip Kim, T. K. Cheong, Jung-Wan Kim, Byung-Ha Oh, Birte Svensson

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Cyclomaltodextrinase (CDase, EC, maltogenic amylase (EC 3. 2.1.133), and neopullulanase (EC are reported to be capable of hydrolyzing all or two of the following three types of substrates: cyclomaltodextrins (CDs); pullulan; and starch. These enzymes hydrolyze CDs and starch to maltose and pullulan to panose by cleavage of alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds whereas alpha-amylases essentially lack activity on CDs and pullulan. They also catalyze transglycosylation of oligosaccharides to the C3-, C4- or C6-hydroxyl groups of various acceptor sugar molecules. The present review surveys the biochemical, enzymatic, and structural properties of three types of such enzymes as defined based on the substrate specificity toward the CDs: type I, cyclomaltodextrinase and maltogenic amylase that hydrolyze CDs much faster than pullulan and starch; type II, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris amylase II (TVA II) that hydrolyzes CDs much less efficiently than pullulan; and type III, neopullulanase that hydrolyzes pullulan efficiently, but remains to be reported to hydrolyze CDs. These three types of enzymes exhibit 40-60% amino acid sequence identity. They occur in the cytoplasm of bacteria and have molecular masses from 62 to 90 kDa which are slightly larger than those of most alpha-amylases. Multiple amino acid sequence alignment and crystal structures of maltogenic amylase and TVA II reveal the presence of an N-terminal extension of approximately 130 residues not found in alpha-amylases. This unique N-terminal domain as seen in the crystal structures apparently contributes to the active site structure leading to the distinct substrate specificity through a dimer formation. In aqueous solution, most of these enzymes show a monomer-dimer equilibrium. The present review discusses the multiple specificity in the light of the oligomerization and the molecular structures arriving at a clarified enzyme classification. Finally, a physiological role of the enzymes is proposed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBBA General Subjects
Pages (from-to)165-185
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


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