Strongly enhanced upconversion in trivalent erbium ions by tailored gold nanostructures: Toward high-efficient silicon-based photovoltaics

Jeppe Christiansen*, Joakim Vester-Petersen, Søren Roesgaard, Søren H. Møller, Rasmus E. Christiansen, Ole Sigmund, Søren Peder Madsen, Peter Balling, Brian Julsgaard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Upconversion of sub-band-gap photons constitutes a promising way for improving the efficiency of silicon-based solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. 1500 nm to 980 nm upconversion by trivalent erbium ions is well-suited for this purpose, but the small absorption cross section hinders real-world applications. We employ tailored gold nanostructures to vastly improve the upconversion efficiency in erbium-doped TiO thin films. The nanostructures are found using topology optimization and parameter optimization and fabricated by electron beam lithography. In qualitative agreement with a theoretical model, the samples show substantial electric-field enhancements inside the upconverting films for excitation at 1500 nm for both s- and p-polarization under a wide range of incidence angles and excitation intensities. An unprecedented upconversion enhancement of 913 ± 51 is observed at 1.7 W cm−2. We derive a semi-empirical expression for the photonically enhanced upconversion efficiency, valid for all excitation intensities. This allows us to determine the upconversion properties needed to achieve significant improvements in real-world solar-cell devices through photonic-enhanced upconversion.
Original languageEnglish
Article number110406
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume208
Number of pages7
ISSN0927-0248
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Upconversion of sub-band gap photons
  • High-efficient photovoltaics
  • Photonic enhancement
  • Topology optimization

Cite this

Christiansen, Jeppe ; Vester-Petersen, Joakim ; Roesgaard, Søren ; Møller, Søren H. ; Christiansen, Rasmus E. ; Sigmund, Ole ; Madsen, Søren Peder ; Balling, Peter ; Julsgaard, Brian . / Strongly enhanced upconversion in trivalent erbium ions by tailored gold nanostructures: Toward high-efficient silicon-based photovoltaics. In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2020 ; Vol. 208.
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title = "Strongly enhanced upconversion in trivalent erbium ions by tailored gold nanostructures: Toward high-efficient silicon-based photovoltaics",
abstract = "Upconversion of sub-band-gap photons constitutes a promising way for improving the efficiency of silicon-based solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. 1500 nm to 980 nm upconversion by trivalent erbium ions is well-suited for this purpose, but the small absorption cross section hinders real-world applications. We employ tailored gold nanostructures to vastly improve the upconversion efficiency in erbium-doped TiO thin films. The nanostructures are found using topology optimization and parameter optimization and fabricated by electron beam lithography. In qualitative agreement with a theoretical model, the samples show substantial electric-field enhancements inside the upconverting films for excitation at 1500 nm for both s- and p-polarization under a wide range of incidence angles and excitation intensities. An unprecedented upconversion enhancement of 913 ± 51 is observed at 1.7 W cm−2. We derive a semi-empirical expression for the photonically enhanced upconversion efficiency, valid for all excitation intensities. This allows us to determine the upconversion properties needed to achieve significant improvements in real-world solar-cell devices through photonic-enhanced upconversion.",
keywords = "Upconversion of sub-band gap photons, High-efficient photovoltaics, Photonic enhancement, Topology optimization",
author = "Jeppe Christiansen and Joakim Vester-Petersen and S{\o}ren Roesgaard and M{\o}ller, {S{\o}ren H.} and Christiansen, {Rasmus E.} and Ole Sigmund and Madsen, {S{\o}ren Peder} and Peter Balling and Brian Julsgaard",
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language = "English",
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Strongly enhanced upconversion in trivalent erbium ions by tailored gold nanostructures: Toward high-efficient silicon-based photovoltaics. / Christiansen, Jeppe; Vester-Petersen, Joakim; Roesgaard, Søren; Møller, Søren H.; Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Sigmund, Ole; Madsen, Søren Peder; Balling, Peter; Julsgaard, Brian .

In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 208, 110406, 2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Strongly enhanced upconversion in trivalent erbium ions by tailored gold nanostructures: Toward high-efficient silicon-based photovoltaics

AU - Christiansen, Jeppe

AU - Vester-Petersen, Joakim

AU - Roesgaard, Søren

AU - Møller, Søren H.

AU - Christiansen, Rasmus E.

AU - Sigmund, Ole

AU - Madsen, Søren Peder

AU - Balling, Peter

AU - Julsgaard, Brian

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - Upconversion of sub-band-gap photons constitutes a promising way for improving the efficiency of silicon-based solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. 1500 nm to 980 nm upconversion by trivalent erbium ions is well-suited for this purpose, but the small absorption cross section hinders real-world applications. We employ tailored gold nanostructures to vastly improve the upconversion efficiency in erbium-doped TiO thin films. The nanostructures are found using topology optimization and parameter optimization and fabricated by electron beam lithography. In qualitative agreement with a theoretical model, the samples show substantial electric-field enhancements inside the upconverting films for excitation at 1500 nm for both s- and p-polarization under a wide range of incidence angles and excitation intensities. An unprecedented upconversion enhancement of 913 ± 51 is observed at 1.7 W cm−2. We derive a semi-empirical expression for the photonically enhanced upconversion efficiency, valid for all excitation intensities. This allows us to determine the upconversion properties needed to achieve significant improvements in real-world solar-cell devices through photonic-enhanced upconversion.

AB - Upconversion of sub-band-gap photons constitutes a promising way for improving the efficiency of silicon-based solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. 1500 nm to 980 nm upconversion by trivalent erbium ions is well-suited for this purpose, but the small absorption cross section hinders real-world applications. We employ tailored gold nanostructures to vastly improve the upconversion efficiency in erbium-doped TiO thin films. The nanostructures are found using topology optimization and parameter optimization and fabricated by electron beam lithography. In qualitative agreement with a theoretical model, the samples show substantial electric-field enhancements inside the upconverting films for excitation at 1500 nm for both s- and p-polarization under a wide range of incidence angles and excitation intensities. An unprecedented upconversion enhancement of 913 ± 51 is observed at 1.7 W cm−2. We derive a semi-empirical expression for the photonically enhanced upconversion efficiency, valid for all excitation intensities. This allows us to determine the upconversion properties needed to achieve significant improvements in real-world solar-cell devices through photonic-enhanced upconversion.

KW - Upconversion of sub-band gap photons

KW - High-efficient photovoltaics

KW - Photonic enhancement

KW - Topology optimization

U2 - 10.1016/j.solmat.2020.110406

DO - 10.1016/j.solmat.2020.110406

M3 - Journal article

VL - 208

JO - Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells

JF - Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells

SN - 0927-0248

M1 - 110406

ER -