Strategies for directing cells into building functional hearts and parts

Mahboubeh Jafarkhani, Zeinab Salehi*, Reza Kowsari-Esfahan, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, M. Rezaa Mohammadi, Jayakumar Rajadas, Masoud Mozafari

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The increasing population of patients with heart disease and the limited availability of organs for transplantation have encouraged multiple strategies to fabricate healthy implantable cardiac tissues. One of the main challenges in cardiac tissue engineering is to direct cell behaviors to form functional three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic constructs. This article provides a brief review on various cell sources used in cardiac tissue engineering and highlights the effect of scaffold-based signals such as topographical and biochemical cues and stiffness. Then, conventional and novel micro-engineered bioreactors for the development of functional cardiac tissues will be explained. Bioreactor-based signals including mechanical and electrical cues to control cardiac cell behavior will also be elaborated in detail. Finally, the application of computational fluid dynamics to design suitable bioreactors will be discussed. This review presents the current state-of-the-art, emerging directions and future trends that critically appraise the concepts involved in various approaches to direct cells for building functional hearts and heart parts.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBiomaterials Science
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)1664-1690
Publication statusPublished - 2018


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