Grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction has been used to determine the atomic arrangement in the 5 x 1 structure of Au on Si(111). The main features of this structure are partially occupied rows of gold atoms in low-symmetry sites. The density of Au atoms is highly asymmetric in the direction perpendicular to the rows. The substrate atoms in the top double layer are shifted up to 1 angstrom from their bulk position. The structure has a disordered 5 x 2 periodicity due to the variation of the interatomic Au-Au distances within a row in the [011BAR] direction. The model is consistent with recent scanning-tunneling-microscopy topographs.