Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales

Halvor Knutsen*, Per Erik Jorde, Jeffrey A. Hutchings, Jakob Hemmer Hansen, Peter Grønkjaer, Kris-Emil Mose Jørgensen, Carl André, Marte Sodeland, Jon Albretsen, Esben M. Olsen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution, diversification and the potential for organisms to adapt and persist in response to a changing environment. Recent studies have documented cryptic, sympatric populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in coastal areas. We analysed genetic origin of 6,483 individual cod sampled annually over 14 years from 125 locations along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast and document stable coexistence of two genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes throughout the study area and study period. A “fjord” ecotype dominated in numbers deep inside fjords while a “North Sea” ecotype was the only type found in offshore North Sea. Both ecotypes coexisted in similar proportions throughout coastal habitats at all spatial scales. The size‐at‐age of the North Sea ecotype on average exceeded that of the fjord ecotype by 20% in length and 80% in weight across all habitats. Different growth and size among individuals of the two types might be one of several ecologically significant variables that allow for stable coexistence of closely related populations within the same habitat. Management plans, biodiversity initiatives and other mitigation strategies that do not account for the mixture of species ecotypes are unlikely to meet objectives related to the sustainability of fish and fisheries.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEvolutionary Applications
Volume11
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)1527-1539
ISSN1752-4563
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Atlantic cod
  • connectivity
  • dispersal
  • ecotypes
  • natural selection
  • sympatry
  • temporal genetic stability

Cite this

Knutsen, H., Jorde, P. E., Hutchings, J. A., Hansen, J. H., Grønkjaer, P., Jørgensen, K-E. M., ... Olsen, E. M. (2018). Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales. Evolutionary Applications, 11(9), 1527-1539. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12640
Knutsen, Halvor ; Jorde, Per Erik ; Hutchings, Jeffrey A. ; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer ; Grønkjaer, Peter ; Jørgensen, Kris-Emil Mose ; André, Carl ; Sodeland, Marte ; Albretsen, Jon ; Olsen, Esben M. / Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales. In: Evolutionary Applications. 2018 ; Vol. 11, No. 9. pp. 1527-1539.
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abstract = "Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution, diversification and the potential for organisms to adapt and persist in response to a changing environment. Recent studies have documented cryptic, sympatric populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in coastal areas. We analysed genetic origin of 6,483 individual cod sampled annually over 14 years from 125 locations along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast and document stable coexistence of two genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes throughout the study area and study period. A “fjord” ecotype dominated in numbers deep inside fjords while a “North Sea” ecotype was the only type found in offshore North Sea. Both ecotypes coexisted in similar proportions throughout coastal habitats at all spatial scales. The size‐at‐age of the North Sea ecotype on average exceeded that of the fjord ecotype by 20{\%} in length and 80{\%} in weight across all habitats. Different growth and size among individuals of the two types might be one of several ecologically significant variables that allow for stable coexistence of closely related populations within the same habitat. Management plans, biodiversity initiatives and other mitigation strategies that do not account for the mixture of species ecotypes are unlikely to meet objectives related to the sustainability of fish and fisheries.",
keywords = "Atlantic cod, connectivity, dispersal, ecotypes, natural selection, sympatry, temporal genetic stability",
author = "Halvor Knutsen and Jorde, {Per Erik} and Hutchings, {Jeffrey A.} and Hansen, {Jakob Hemmer} and Peter Gr{\o}nkjaer and J{\o}rgensen, {Kris-Emil Mose} and Carl Andr{\'e} and Marte Sodeland and Jon Albretsen and Olsen, {Esben M.}",
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Knutsen, H, Jorde, PE, Hutchings, JA, Hansen, JH, Grønkjaer, P, Jørgensen, K-EM, André, C, Sodeland, M, Albretsen, J & Olsen, EM 2018, 'Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales', Evolutionary Applications, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1527-1539. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12640

Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales. / Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Hutchings, Jeffrey A.; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Grønkjaer, Peter; Jørgensen, Kris-Emil Mose; André, Carl; Sodeland, Marte; Albretsen, Jon; Olsen, Esben M.

In: Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 11, No. 9, 2018, p. 1527-1539.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales

AU - Knutsen, Halvor

AU - Jorde, Per Erik

AU - Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

AU - Hansen, Jakob Hemmer

AU - Grønkjaer, Peter

AU - Jørgensen, Kris-Emil Mose

AU - André, Carl

AU - Sodeland, Marte

AU - Albretsen, Jon

AU - Olsen, Esben M.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution, diversification and the potential for organisms to adapt and persist in response to a changing environment. Recent studies have documented cryptic, sympatric populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in coastal areas. We analysed genetic origin of 6,483 individual cod sampled annually over 14 years from 125 locations along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast and document stable coexistence of two genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes throughout the study area and study period. A “fjord” ecotype dominated in numbers deep inside fjords while a “North Sea” ecotype was the only type found in offshore North Sea. Both ecotypes coexisted in similar proportions throughout coastal habitats at all spatial scales. The size‐at‐age of the North Sea ecotype on average exceeded that of the fjord ecotype by 20% in length and 80% in weight across all habitats. Different growth and size among individuals of the two types might be one of several ecologically significant variables that allow for stable coexistence of closely related populations within the same habitat. Management plans, biodiversity initiatives and other mitigation strategies that do not account for the mixture of species ecotypes are unlikely to meet objectives related to the sustainability of fish and fisheries.

AB - Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution, diversification and the potential for organisms to adapt and persist in response to a changing environment. Recent studies have documented cryptic, sympatric populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in coastal areas. We analysed genetic origin of 6,483 individual cod sampled annually over 14 years from 125 locations along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast and document stable coexistence of two genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes throughout the study area and study period. A “fjord” ecotype dominated in numbers deep inside fjords while a “North Sea” ecotype was the only type found in offshore North Sea. Both ecotypes coexisted in similar proportions throughout coastal habitats at all spatial scales. The size‐at‐age of the North Sea ecotype on average exceeded that of the fjord ecotype by 20% in length and 80% in weight across all habitats. Different growth and size among individuals of the two types might be one of several ecologically significant variables that allow for stable coexistence of closely related populations within the same habitat. Management plans, biodiversity initiatives and other mitigation strategies that do not account for the mixture of species ecotypes are unlikely to meet objectives related to the sustainability of fish and fisheries.

KW - Atlantic cod

KW - connectivity

KW - dispersal

KW - ecotypes

KW - natural selection

KW - sympatry

KW - temporal genetic stability

U2 - 10.1111/eva.12640

DO - 10.1111/eva.12640

M3 - Journal article

VL - 11

SP - 1527

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JO - Evolutionary Applications (Online)

JF - Evolutionary Applications (Online)

SN - 1752-4563

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ER -