Stability of vitamin D in foodstuffs during cooking

Jette Jakobsen, Pia Knuthsen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

We investigated the retention of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in eggs, vitamin D3 in margarine, and vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 in bread. Our set-up illustrated the cooking methods usually performed in households i.e. boiling, frying in pan and oven, and baking. All experiments were performed three times independently of one another. The retention of vitamin D compounds in eggs and margarine during heat treatment in an oven for 40min at normal cooking temperature showed retention at 39–45%, while frying resulted in retention at 82–84%. Boiled eggs were found to have a similar level of retention (86–88%). For bread baked, as recommended in the recipe, the retention of vitamin D3 in rye bread at 69% was lower than the retention in wheat bread at 85%. A similar observation was made for vitamin D2, although the retention was slightly higher, 73% and 89%. No difference between retention of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in eggs was shown. Cooking may cause detrimental loss of vitamin D, but it depends on the actual foodstuffs and the heating process. Further research is needed to optimise cooking procedures to enhance retention of vitamin D. Vitamin D retention should be taken into account in future calculations of dietary intake of vitamin D.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume148
Pages (from-to)170-175
ISSN0308-8146
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Vitamin D
  • Foods
  • Cooking
  • Retention

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