The technological demand for manufacturing components with complex geometries of micrometer or sub-micrometer dimensions and ambitions for ongoing miniaturization have attracted particular attention to electrochemical deposition methods. Thin layers of electrochemically deposited metals and alloys have different microstructure and properties compared to bulk materials and the thermodynamic non-equilibrium state of as-deposited layers frequently results in changes of the microstructure as a function of time and/or temperature. The evolving microstructure affects the functionality and reliability of electrodeposited components, which can be beneficial, as for the electrical conductivity of copper interconnect lines, or detrimental, as for reduced strength of nickel in MEMS applications. The present work reports on in-situ studies of the microstructure stability of as-deposited nanocrystalline Cu-, Ag- and Ni-layers. The kinetics of grain growth and changes of the preferred crystallographic orientation of grains has been investigated by means of in-situ X-ray diffraction both at room temperature and during isothermal annealing at elevated temperatures. So-called self-annealing, which is well-known for Cu-layers, has been found to occur for Ag-layers as well. Contrary to Cu and Ag, electrodeposited Ni-layers can be stable up to about 450 K. Similarities and characteristic differences of the mechanisms and kinetics of microstructure evolution in the various electrodeposits are discussed.
|Journal||Proceedings of the Risø International Symposium on Materials Science|
|Publication status||Published - 2009|
|Event||30th Risø International Symposium on Materials Science : Nanostructured metals – Fundamentals to applications - Risø DTU, Roskilde, Denmark|
Duration: 7 Sep 2009 → 11 Sep 2009
|Conference||30th Risø International Symposium on Materials Science : Nanostructured metals – Fundamentals to applications|
|Period||07/09/2009 → 11/09/2009|