Samples of the edible mushroom Laccaria amethystina, which is known to accumulate arsenic, were collected from two uncontaminated beech forests and an arsenic-contaminated one in Denmark, The total arsenic concentration was 23 and 77 mu g As g(-1) (dry weight) in the two uncontaminated samples and 1420 mu g As g(-1) in the contaminated sample. The arsenic species were liberated from the samples using focused microwave-assisted extraction, and were separated and detected by anion- and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer as arsenic-selective detector. Dimethylarsinic acid accounted for 68-74%, methylarsonic acid for 0.3-2.9%, trimethylarsine oxide for 0.6-2.0% and arsenic acid for 0.1-6.1% of the total arsenic. The unextractable fraction of arsenic ranged between 15 and 32%, The results also showed that when growing in the highly arsenate-contaminated soil (500-800 mu g As g(-1)) the mushrooms or their associated bacteria were able to biosynthesize dimethylarsinic acid from arsinic acid in the soil. Furthermore, arsenobetaine and trimethylarsine oxide were detected for the first time in Laccaria amethystina. Additionally, unidentified arsenic species were detected in the mushroom, The finding of arsenobetaine and trimethylarsine oxide in low amounts in the mushrooms showed that synthesis of this arsenical in nature is not restricted to marine biota. In order to minimize the toxicological risk of arsenic to humans it is recommended not to consume Laccaria amethystina mushrooms collected from the highly contaminated soil, because of a genotoxic effect of dimethylarsinic acid observed at high doses in animal experiments.
|Journal||Applied Organometallic Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 1998|