Spatial and temporal distributions of turbulence under bichromatic breaking waves

Joep van der Zanden*, Dominic A. van der A, Iván Cáceres, Bjarke Eltard Larsen, Guillaume Fromant, Carmelo Petrotta, Pietro Scandura, Ming Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The present study aims to extend insights of surf zone turbulence dynamics to wave groups. In a large-scale wave flume, bichromatic wave groups were produced with 31.5 s group period, 4.2 s mean wave period, and a 0.58 m maximum wave height near the paddle. This condition resulted in plunging-type wave breaking over a fixed, gravel-bed, barred profile. Optic, acoustic and electromagnetic instruments were used to measure the flow and the spatial and temporal distributions of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The measurements showed that turbulence in the shoaling region is primarily bed-generated and decays almost fully within one wave cycle, leading to TKE variations at the short wave frequency. The wave breaking-generated turbulence, in contrast, decays over multiple wave cycles, leading to a gradual increase and decay of TKE during a wave group cycle. In the wave breaking region, TKE dynamics are driven by the production and subsequent downward transport of turbulence under the successive breaking waves in the group. Consequently, the maximum near-bed TKE in the breaking region can lag the highest breaking wave by up to 2.5 wave cycles. The net cross-shore transport of TKE is in the shoaling region primarily driven by short-wave velocities and is shoreward-directed; in the wave breaking region, the TKE transport is seaward-directed by the undertow and the long-wave velocities. Downward transport of TKE is driven by the vertical component of the time-averaged flow. The cross-shore and vertical diffusive transport rates are small relative to the advective transport rates.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCoastal engineering
Volume146
Pages (from-to)65-80
ISSN0378-3839
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Bichromatic waves
  • Breaking waves
  • Surf zone
  • Turbulence
  • Wave flume experiment
  • Wave groups

Cite this

van der Zanden, J., van der A, D. A., Cáceres, I., Larsen, B. E., Fromant, G., Petrotta, C., ... Li, M. (2019). Spatial and temporal distributions of turbulence under bichromatic breaking waves. Coastal engineering, 146, 65-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.01.006
van der Zanden, Joep ; van der A, Dominic A. ; Cáceres, Iván ; Larsen, Bjarke Eltard ; Fromant, Guillaume ; Petrotta, Carmelo ; Scandura, Pietro ; Li, Ming. / Spatial and temporal distributions of turbulence under bichromatic breaking waves. In: Coastal engineering. 2019 ; Vol. 146. pp. 65-80.
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title = "Spatial and temporal distributions of turbulence under bichromatic breaking waves",
abstract = "The present study aims to extend insights of surf zone turbulence dynamics to wave groups. In a large-scale wave flume, bichromatic wave groups were produced with 31.5 s group period, 4.2 s mean wave period, and a 0.58 m maximum wave height near the paddle. This condition resulted in plunging-type wave breaking over a fixed, gravel-bed, barred profile. Optic, acoustic and electromagnetic instruments were used to measure the flow and the spatial and temporal distributions of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The measurements showed that turbulence in the shoaling region is primarily bed-generated and decays almost fully within one wave cycle, leading to TKE variations at the short wave frequency. The wave breaking-generated turbulence, in contrast, decays over multiple wave cycles, leading to a gradual increase and decay of TKE during a wave group cycle. In the wave breaking region, TKE dynamics are driven by the production and subsequent downward transport of turbulence under the successive breaking waves in the group. Consequently, the maximum near-bed TKE in the breaking region can lag the highest breaking wave by up to 2.5 wave cycles. The net cross-shore transport of TKE is in the shoaling region primarily driven by short-wave velocities and is shoreward-directed; in the wave breaking region, the TKE transport is seaward-directed by the undertow and the long-wave velocities. Downward transport of TKE is driven by the vertical component of the time-averaged flow. The cross-shore and vertical diffusive transport rates are small relative to the advective transport rates.",
keywords = "Bichromatic waves, Breaking waves, Surf zone, Turbulence, Wave flume experiment, Wave groups",
author = "{van der Zanden}, Joep and {van der A}, {Dominic A.} and Iv{\'a}n C{\'a}ceres and Larsen, {Bjarke Eltard} and Guillaume Fromant and Carmelo Petrotta and Pietro Scandura and Ming Li",
year = "2019",
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van der Zanden, J, van der A, DA, Cáceres, I, Larsen, BE, Fromant, G, Petrotta, C, Scandura, P & Li, M 2019, 'Spatial and temporal distributions of turbulence under bichromatic breaking waves', Coastal engineering, vol. 146, pp. 65-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.01.006

Spatial and temporal distributions of turbulence under bichromatic breaking waves. / van der Zanden, Joep; van der A, Dominic A.; Cáceres, Iván; Larsen, Bjarke Eltard; Fromant, Guillaume; Petrotta, Carmelo; Scandura, Pietro; Li, Ming.

In: Coastal engineering, Vol. 146, 2019, p. 65-80.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Spatial and temporal distributions of turbulence under bichromatic breaking waves

AU - van der Zanden, Joep

AU - van der A, Dominic A.

AU - Cáceres, Iván

AU - Larsen, Bjarke Eltard

AU - Fromant, Guillaume

AU - Petrotta, Carmelo

AU - Scandura, Pietro

AU - Li, Ming

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The present study aims to extend insights of surf zone turbulence dynamics to wave groups. In a large-scale wave flume, bichromatic wave groups were produced with 31.5 s group period, 4.2 s mean wave period, and a 0.58 m maximum wave height near the paddle. This condition resulted in plunging-type wave breaking over a fixed, gravel-bed, barred profile. Optic, acoustic and electromagnetic instruments were used to measure the flow and the spatial and temporal distributions of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The measurements showed that turbulence in the shoaling region is primarily bed-generated and decays almost fully within one wave cycle, leading to TKE variations at the short wave frequency. The wave breaking-generated turbulence, in contrast, decays over multiple wave cycles, leading to a gradual increase and decay of TKE during a wave group cycle. In the wave breaking region, TKE dynamics are driven by the production and subsequent downward transport of turbulence under the successive breaking waves in the group. Consequently, the maximum near-bed TKE in the breaking region can lag the highest breaking wave by up to 2.5 wave cycles. The net cross-shore transport of TKE is in the shoaling region primarily driven by short-wave velocities and is shoreward-directed; in the wave breaking region, the TKE transport is seaward-directed by the undertow and the long-wave velocities. Downward transport of TKE is driven by the vertical component of the time-averaged flow. The cross-shore and vertical diffusive transport rates are small relative to the advective transport rates.

AB - The present study aims to extend insights of surf zone turbulence dynamics to wave groups. In a large-scale wave flume, bichromatic wave groups were produced with 31.5 s group period, 4.2 s mean wave period, and a 0.58 m maximum wave height near the paddle. This condition resulted in plunging-type wave breaking over a fixed, gravel-bed, barred profile. Optic, acoustic and electromagnetic instruments were used to measure the flow and the spatial and temporal distributions of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The measurements showed that turbulence in the shoaling region is primarily bed-generated and decays almost fully within one wave cycle, leading to TKE variations at the short wave frequency. The wave breaking-generated turbulence, in contrast, decays over multiple wave cycles, leading to a gradual increase and decay of TKE during a wave group cycle. In the wave breaking region, TKE dynamics are driven by the production and subsequent downward transport of turbulence under the successive breaking waves in the group. Consequently, the maximum near-bed TKE in the breaking region can lag the highest breaking wave by up to 2.5 wave cycles. The net cross-shore transport of TKE is in the shoaling region primarily driven by short-wave velocities and is shoreward-directed; in the wave breaking region, the TKE transport is seaward-directed by the undertow and the long-wave velocities. Downward transport of TKE is driven by the vertical component of the time-averaged flow. The cross-shore and vertical diffusive transport rates are small relative to the advective transport rates.

KW - Bichromatic waves

KW - Breaking waves

KW - Surf zone

KW - Turbulence

KW - Wave flume experiment

KW - Wave groups

U2 - 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.01.006

DO - 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.01.006

M3 - Journal article

VL - 146

SP - 65

EP - 80

JO - Coastal Engineering

JF - Coastal Engineering

SN - 0378-3839

ER -