Soyasaponins resist extrusion cooking and are not degraded during gut passage in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

Sven David Lausten Knudsen, Ø. Røn, G. Baardsen, Jørn Smedsgaard, W. Koppe, Hanne Frøkiær

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


    The stability of soyasaponins in fish feed formulations was investigated. The level of soyasaponin Ab, Bb, Bc, Ba-2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (Ba-DDMP), Bb-DDMP, and BcDDMP was quantified in 15 samples of defatted soybean meal, two full fat soybean meals, and two soybean protein concentrates by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The total level of saponins in the 15 samples of commercial defatted soybean meal ranged from 4.8-6.8 mu mol/g (5.1-7.0 g/kg). The two full fat meals contained 4.4 and 4.7 mu mol/g whereas no saponins could be detected in the alcohol-extracted soybean protein concentrates. Fifteen batches of fish feed containing 20% defatted soybean meal were produced by twin-screw extrusion from the 15 different samples of defatted soybean meal. Extrusion did not reduce the total level of group B saponins, but the ratio between DDMP-conjugated group B saponins and non-DDMP-conjugated group B saponins was slightly reduced. A soybean-containing diet was fed to seawater adapted Atlantic salmon for 9 weeks. Yttrium oxide was included in the feed as an inert marker in order to estimate the disappearance of saponins during gut passage. High levels of intact non-DDMP-conjugated group B soyasaponins were found in feces whereas only low levels of DDMP-conjugated saponins could be detected. The overall disappearance of saponins was close to zero, and the concentration of intact saponins in dry feces reached levels several fold higher than dietary levels. The present work demonstrates that non-DDMP-conjugated group B soyasaponins resist extrusion cooking and remain intact during gut passage in Atlantic salmon. The latter is contrary to earlier findings in endothermic animals.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    Issue number17
    Pages (from-to)6428-6435
    Publication statusPublished - 2006


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