Solder free joining as a highly effective method for making contact between thermoelectric materials and metallic electrodes

Safdar Abbas Malik, Thanh Hung Le, Ngo Van Nong

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

1 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Quality of joining and interfacial evolution behavior play a critical role in the performance and reliability of thermoelectric (TE) devices. In this study, different joining methods using Zn−2AlZn−2Al solder alloy (1) and solder-free joining with microlayers of Ti and Cr as interconnecting agents (2) were systematically investigated and demonstrated on the low-cost ZnSb TE system. ZnSb material, which was chosen to bond with Ag and Ni metallic electrodes, exhibited a maximum zT value of 0.8 at 400∘C. With the joining method (1), Zn from the Zn−2AlZn−2Al solder was found to diffuse/react with both Ag and Ni electrodes, and penetrate into ZnSb legs. SEM-EDX analysis recorded a significant excess of Zn in the ZnSb leg after joining. We found that, using microlayers of Ti and Cr as interconnecting agent, a very good interfacial contact was obtained, and the starting composition of ZnSb legs was preserved. The interfacial contact of ZnSb/Cr/NiZnSb/Cr/Ni was found to be stable after heat treatment at 400∘C for 30 h, suggesting solder-free joining as an effective method for reliable contacts in TE devices in the medium temperature region (200∘C−400∘C).
Original languageEnglish
JournalMaterials Today Energy
Volume5
Pages (from-to)305-311
ISSN2468-6069
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Low-cost thermoelectrics
  • Contact resistance
  • Interface kinetics
  • Zinc antimonide

Cite this

@article{4082c7a33e614a62ab2ab3453c082597,
title = "Solder free joining as a highly effective method for making contact between thermoelectric materials and metallic electrodes",
abstract = "Quality of joining and interfacial evolution behavior play a critical role in the performance and reliability of thermoelectric (TE) devices. In this study, different joining methods using Zn−2AlZn−2Al solder alloy (1) and solder-free joining with microlayers of Ti and Cr as interconnecting agents (2) were systematically investigated and demonstrated on the low-cost ZnSb TE system. ZnSb material, which was chosen to bond with Ag and Ni metallic electrodes, exhibited a maximum zT value of 0.8 at 400∘C. With the joining method (1), Zn from the Zn−2AlZn−2Al solder was found to diffuse/react with both Ag and Ni electrodes, and penetrate into ZnSb legs. SEM-EDX analysis recorded a significant excess of Zn in the ZnSb leg after joining. We found that, using microlayers of Ti and Cr as interconnecting agent, a very good interfacial contact was obtained, and the starting composition of ZnSb legs was preserved. The interfacial contact of ZnSb/Cr/NiZnSb/Cr/Ni was found to be stable after heat treatment at 400∘C for 30 h, suggesting solder-free joining as an effective method for reliable contacts in TE devices in the medium temperature region (200∘C−400∘C).",
keywords = "Low-cost thermoelectrics, Contact resistance, Interface kinetics, Zinc antimonide",
author = "Malik, {Safdar Abbas} and Le, {Thanh Hung} and {Van Nong}, Ngo",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.mtener.2017.07.012",
language = "English",
volume = "5",
pages = "305--311",
journal = "Materials Today Energy",
issn = "2468-6069",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Solder free joining as a highly effective method for making contact between thermoelectric materials and metallic electrodes. / Malik, Safdar Abbas; Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo.

In: Materials Today Energy, Vol. 5, 2017, p. 305-311.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Solder free joining as a highly effective method for making contact between thermoelectric materials and metallic electrodes

AU - Malik, Safdar Abbas

AU - Le, Thanh Hung

AU - Van Nong, Ngo

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Quality of joining and interfacial evolution behavior play a critical role in the performance and reliability of thermoelectric (TE) devices. In this study, different joining methods using Zn−2AlZn−2Al solder alloy (1) and solder-free joining with microlayers of Ti and Cr as interconnecting agents (2) were systematically investigated and demonstrated on the low-cost ZnSb TE system. ZnSb material, which was chosen to bond with Ag and Ni metallic electrodes, exhibited a maximum zT value of 0.8 at 400∘C. With the joining method (1), Zn from the Zn−2AlZn−2Al solder was found to diffuse/react with both Ag and Ni electrodes, and penetrate into ZnSb legs. SEM-EDX analysis recorded a significant excess of Zn in the ZnSb leg after joining. We found that, using microlayers of Ti and Cr as interconnecting agent, a very good interfacial contact was obtained, and the starting composition of ZnSb legs was preserved. The interfacial contact of ZnSb/Cr/NiZnSb/Cr/Ni was found to be stable after heat treatment at 400∘C for 30 h, suggesting solder-free joining as an effective method for reliable contacts in TE devices in the medium temperature region (200∘C−400∘C).

AB - Quality of joining and interfacial evolution behavior play a critical role in the performance and reliability of thermoelectric (TE) devices. In this study, different joining methods using Zn−2AlZn−2Al solder alloy (1) and solder-free joining with microlayers of Ti and Cr as interconnecting agents (2) were systematically investigated and demonstrated on the low-cost ZnSb TE system. ZnSb material, which was chosen to bond with Ag and Ni metallic electrodes, exhibited a maximum zT value of 0.8 at 400∘C. With the joining method (1), Zn from the Zn−2AlZn−2Al solder was found to diffuse/react with both Ag and Ni electrodes, and penetrate into ZnSb legs. SEM-EDX analysis recorded a significant excess of Zn in the ZnSb leg after joining. We found that, using microlayers of Ti and Cr as interconnecting agent, a very good interfacial contact was obtained, and the starting composition of ZnSb legs was preserved. The interfacial contact of ZnSb/Cr/NiZnSb/Cr/Ni was found to be stable after heat treatment at 400∘C for 30 h, suggesting solder-free joining as an effective method for reliable contacts in TE devices in the medium temperature region (200∘C−400∘C).

KW - Low-cost thermoelectrics

KW - Contact resistance

KW - Interface kinetics

KW - Zinc antimonide

U2 - 10.1016/j.mtener.2017.07.012

DO - 10.1016/j.mtener.2017.07.012

M3 - Journal article

VL - 5

SP - 305

EP - 311

JO - Materials Today Energy

JF - Materials Today Energy

SN - 2468-6069

ER -