Smooth-pursuit performance during Eye-typing from Memory indicates Mental Fatigue

Tanya Bafna-Ruhrer, Per Baekgaard, John Paulin Hansen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

14 Downloads (Pure)


Mental fatigue is known to occur as a result of activities related to e.g. transportation, health-care, military operations and numerous other cognitive demanding tasks. Gaze tracking has wide-ranging applications, with the technology becoming more compact and processing power reducing. Though numerous techniques have been applied to measure mental fatigue using gaze tracking, smooth-pursuit movement, a natural eye movement generated when following a moving object with gaze, has not been explored with relation to mental fatigue. In this paper, we report the results from a smooth-pursuit movement based eye-typing experiment with varying task difficulty to generate cognitive load, performed in the morning and afternoon by 36 participants. We have investigated the effects of time-on-task and time of day on mental fatigue using self-reported questionnaires and smooth-pursuit performance, extracted from the gaze data. The self-reported mental fatigue increased due to time-on-task, but the time of day did not have an effect. The results illustrate that smooth-pursuit movement performance declined with time-on-task, with increased error in the gaze position and an inability to match the speed of the moving object. The findings exhibit the feasibility of mental fatigue detection using smoothpursuit movements during an eye-interactive task of eye-typing.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2
JournalJournal of Eye Movement Research
Issue number4
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Mental fatigue
  • Smooth-pursuit
  • Eye-tracking
  • Text entry
  • Time-on-task
  • Time of day
  • Attention


Dive into the research topics of 'Smooth-pursuit performance during Eye-typing from Memory indicates Mental Fatigue'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this