Exosomes are nanometer-sized lipid vesicles present in liquid biopsies and used as biomarkers for several diseases including cancer, Alzheimer’s, and central nervous system diseases. Purification and subsequent size and surface characterization are essential to exosome-based diagnostics. Sample purification is, however, time consuming and potentially damaging, and no current method gives the size and zeta potential from a single measurement. Here, we concentrate exosomes from a dilute solution and measure their size and zeta potential in a one-step measurement with a salt gradient in a capillary channel. The salt gradient causes oppositely directed particle and fluid transport that trap particles. Within minutes, the particle concentration increases more than two orders of magnitude. A fit to the spatial distribution of a single or an ensemble of exosomes returns both their size and surface charge. Our method is applicable for other types of nanoparticles. The capillary is fabricated in a low-cost polymer device.