Single-component Multi-rate Real Time Hybrid Simulation Pilot Test on a Composite Structure

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This paper represents a single component multi-rate Real-Time Hybrid Simulation (mrRTHS) strategy for structural assessment of a cantilever Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) beam loaded at the tip by a sinusoidal point load. This emulated structure is implemented as a simplified wind turbine blade in terms of geometry, scale and load – here with special attention paid to the root and max-chord section. Thus, the experimental substructure comprises the clamped end of the GFRP beam while the free end makes up the numerical substructure. The partitioning between the numerical and experimental substructure – referred to here as the shared boundary – includes a discrete point with 3 degrees-of-freedom (dof). The numerical substructure generates a displacement signal through a Taylor basis with a coarse time step to optimize computational resources. Using the previous displacement data points, a finer control signal is generated to ensure accurate actuator control in the transfer system. A DIC and inertia compensator is implemented to account for the compliance and dynamics imposed by the load train in the transfer system. The structural response is investigated by mrRTHS for an execution frequency in the range: 0.074 Hz – 2.96 Hz for the sinusoidal point load. The system performance is evaluated against an experimental test setup of the emulated structure – referred to here as the experimental reference. With a root-mean-square (RMS) error in the order of 8–20% between the mrRTHS and reference, the system proved successful in terms of stability and overall correlation at the shared boundary, which is considered an important milestone towards single component mrRTHS on a structure like e.g. a wind turbine blade, aircraft wing or similar cantilever-shaped large load carrying structure.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEngineering Structures
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • RTHS
  • Taylor basis
  • Experimental substructure
  • Hardware-in-the-loop
  • Multi-rate
  • Numerical substructure
  • Performance evaluation
  • Single-component hybrid simulation


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