This article addresses simultaneous bulk precipitation hardening and low temperature surface engineering of two commercial precipitation hardening stainless steels: Sandvik Nanoflex® and Uddeholm Corrax®. Surface engineering comprised gaseous nitriding or gaseous carburising. Microstructural characterisation of the cases developed included X-ray diffraction analysis, reflected light microscopy and micro-hardness testing. It was found that the incorporation of nitrogen or carbon resulted in a hardened case consisting of a combination of (tetragonal) martensite and expanded (cubic) austenite. The duration and temperature of the nitriding/carburising surface hardening treatment can be chosen in agreement with the thermal treatment for obtaining optimal bulk hardness in the precipitation hardening stainless steel.