Excess bisphenol A (BPA) is a pollutant of concern in different water sources. In this work, magnetic illite clay-composite material (Fe3O4@illite) was synthesized via the coprecipitation method by loading Fe3O4 nanoparticles (nano-Fe3O4) onto the surfaces of illite clay. Results from different characterizations showed that nano-Fe3O4 was embedded into illite clay nanosheets and existed on the surfaces of illite clay, thereby reducing the degree of agglomeration and improving dispersibility. The catalytic BPA degradation of Fe3O4@illite and nano-Fe3O4 confirmed the superior performance of Fe3O4@illite compared with that of nano-Fe3O4. The optimum operating parameters for degradation were 0.3 mL of H2O2 at pH of 3 in the presence of Fe3O4@illite, which provided a maximum degradation capacity up to 816, 364, 113, and 68 mg/g for epoxy BPA concentration of resin wastewater (266 mg/L), synthetic wastewater (80 mg/L), Hefei City swan lake (25 mg/L), and Hefei University lake wastewater (14.94 mg/L), respectively, in 180 min reaction time. The degradation data conformed to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The degradation pathways and mineralization study revealed that the adsorption-Fenton-like reaction was the principal mechanism that demonstrated 100% degradation efficiency of Fe3O4@illite even after nine successive runs. The regeneration and reusability tendency analysis ensured that Fe3O4@illite can be easily separated by using magnets. Therefore, Fe3O4@illite composite with H2O2 Fenton-like technology was a promising method for BPA degradation.