Discrete-fracture and rock matrix (DFM) modelling necessitates a physically realistic discretisation of the large aspect ratio fractures and the dissected material domains. Using unstructured spatially adaptively refined finite-element meshes, we find that the fastest flow often occurs in the smallest elements. Flow velocity and element size vary over many orders of magnitude, disqualifying global Courant number (CFL)-dependent transport schemes because too many time steps would be necessary to investigate displacements of interest. Here, we present a higher-order accurate implicit pressure-(semi)-implicit transport scheme for the advection-diffusion equation that overcomes this CFL limitation for DFM models. Using operator splitting, we solve the pressure and the transport equations on finite-element, node-centred finite-volume meshes, respectively, using algebraic multigrid methods. We apply this approach to field data-based DFM models where the fracture flow velocity and mesh refinement is 2-4 orders of magnitude greater than that of the matrix. For a global CFL of a parts per thousand currency sign10,000, this implies sub-CFL, second-order accurate behaviour in the matrix, and super-CFL, at least first-order accurate, transports in fast-flowing fractures. Their greater refinement, however, largely offsets this numerical dispersion, promoting a highly accurate overall solution. Numerical and fracture-related mechanical dispersions are compared in the realistic DFM models using second-order accurate runs as reference cases. With a CFL histogram, we establish target error criteria for CFL overstepping. This analysis indicates that for extreme fracture heterogeneity, only a few transport steps can be sufficient to analyse macro-dispersion. This makes our implicit method attractive for quick analysis of transport properties on multiple realisations of DFM models.
Matthaei, S. K., Nick, H. M., Pain, C., & Neuweiler, I. (2010). Simulation of Solute Transport Through Fractured Rock: A Higher-Order Accurate Finite-Element Finite-Volume Method Permitting Large Time Steps. Transport in Porous Media, 83(2), 289-318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-009-9440-z