The integration of thermal and electrical systems offers potential for exchanging system services. Studies of integrated energy systems typically represent the system quasi-statically, and use implicit control schemes, e.g. through optimisation formulations. However, properly characterising services offered between these systems and their cross-domain impact, requires both modelling these systems at time-scales congruent with operation, and explicitly modelling their control flow. By modelling both domain- and control systems explicitly, we show how a co-simulation tool-chain allows examining the impact of flexibility provision in one domain on another, as well as evaluating cross-domain control strategies. We further examine the impact time resolution has on the perceived benefit of cross-domain service provision, specifically whether quasi-static studies lead to systematic over- or under-estimation of the benefits from cross-domain integration.
- Distribution networks