Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial properties of silver-doped titanium surfaces prepared with a novel electrochemical anodizing process. Material and methods: Titanium samples were anodized with a pulsed process in a solution of silver nitrate and sodium thiosulphate at room temperature with stirring. Samples were processed with different electrolyte concentrations and treatment cycles to improve silver deposition. Physicochemical properties were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, white-light interferometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Cellular cytotoxicity in human fibroblasts was studied with lactate dehydrogenase assays. The in vitro effect of treated surfaces on two oral bacteria strains (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus salivarius) was studied with viable bacterial adhesion measurements and growth curve assays. Nonparametric statistical Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for multiple and paired comparisons, respectively. Post hoc Spearman's correlation tests were calculated to check the dependence between bacteria adhesion and surface properties. Results: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the presence of silver on treated samples and showed that treatments with higher silver nitrate concentration and more cycles increased the silver deposition on titanium surface. No negative effects in fibroblast cell viability were detected and a significant reduction on bacterial adhesion in vitro was achieved in silver-treated samples compared with control titanium. Conclusions: Silver deposition on titanium with a novel electrochemical anodizing process produced surfaces with significant antibacterial properties in vitro without negative effects on cell viability.
- Bacterial Adhesion
- Silver Deposition
Gallardo, M. G., Delgado, L. M., Manero, J. M., Gil, F. J., Rodríguez, D., & Rodríguez-Hernández, A. G. (2015). Silver deposition on titanium surface by electrochemical anodizing process reduces bacterial adhesion of Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus salivarius. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 26(10), 1170-1179. https://doi.org/10.1111/clr.12422