Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a γ-ray burst

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter – Annual report year: 2019Researchpeer-review

  • Author: Izzo, L.

    CSIC

  • Author: de Ugarte Postigo, A.

    University of Copenhagen, Denmark

  • Author: Maeda, K.

    Kyoto University, Japan

  • Author: Thöne, C. C.

    CSIC

  • Author: Kann, D. A.

    CSIC

  • Author: Della Valle, M.

    University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy

  • Author: Sagues Carracedo, A.

    Stockholm University

  • Author: Michałowski, M. J.

    Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland

  • Author: Schady, P.

    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany

  • Author: Schmidl, S.

    Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany

  • Author: Selsing, J.

    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

  • Author: Starling, R. L. C.

    University of Leicester, United Kingdom

  • Author: Suzuki, A.

    National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Japan

  • Author: Bensch, K.

    CSIC, Spain

  • Author: Bolmer, J.

    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany

  • Author: Campana, S.

    Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy

  • Author: Cano, Z.

    CSIC

  • Author: Covino, S.

    Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera

  • Author: Fynbo, J. P.U.

    National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej, building 327+328 ; Ørsted Plads, building 348 ; Richard Petersens Plads, building 305, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

  • Author: Hartmann, D. H.

    Clemson University, United States

  • Author: Heintz, K. E.

    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

  • Author: Hjorth, J.

    University of Copenhagen, Denmark

  • Author: Japelj, J.

    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

  • Author: Kamiński, K.

    Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan

  • Author: Kaper, L.

    University of Amsterdam

  • Author: Kouveliotou, C.

    George Washington University, United States

  • Author: Krużyński, M.

    Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland

  • Author: Kwiatkowski, T.

    Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland

  • Author: Leloudas, G.

    Astrophysics and Atmospheric Physics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

  • Author: Levan, A. J.

    University of Warwick, United Kingdom

  • Author: Malesani, D. B.

    National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej, building 327+328 ; Ørsted Plads, building 348 ; Richard Petersens Plads, building 305, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

  • Author: Michałowski, T.

    Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland

  • Author: Piranomonte, S.

    National Institute for Astrophysics, Italy

  • Author: Pugliese, G.

    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

  • Author: Rossi, A.

    National Institute for Astrophysics, Italy

  • Author: Sanchez-Ramirez, R.

    National Institute for Astrophysics

  • Author: Schulze, S.

    Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

  • Author: Steeghs, D.

    University of Warwick, United Kingdom

  • Author: Tanvir, N. R.

    University of Leicester, United Kingdom

  • Author: Ulaczyk, K.

    University of Warwick

  • Author: Vergani, S. D.

    PSL Research University, United Kingdom

  • Author: Wiersema, K.

    University of Warwick, United Kingdom

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Long γ-ray bursts are associated with energetic, broad-lined, stripped-envelope supernovae1,2 and as such mark the death of massive stars. The scarcity of such events nearby and the brightness of the γ-ray burst afterglow, which dominates the emission in the first few days after the burst, have so far prevented the study of the very early evolution of supernovae associated with γ-ray bursts3. In hydrogen-stripped supernovae that are not associated with γ-ray bursts, an excess of high-velocity (roughly 30,000 kilometres per second) material has been interpreted as a signature of a choked jet, which did not emerge from the progenitor star and instead deposited all of its energy in a thermal cocoon4. Here we report multi-epoch spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN 2017iuk, which is associated with the γ-ray burst GRB 171205A. Our spectra display features at extremely high expansion velocities (around 115,000 kilometres per second) within the first day after the burst5,6. Using spectral synthesis models developed for SN 2017iuk, we show that these features are characterized by chemical abundances that differ from those observed in the ejecta of SN 2017iuk at later times. We further show that the high-velocity features originate from the mildly relativistic hot cocoon that is generated by an ultra-relativistic jet within the γ-ray burst expanding and decelerating into the medium that surrounds the progenitor star7,8. This cocoon rapidly becomes transparent9 and is outshone by the supernova emission, which starts to dominate the emission three days after the burst.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature
Volume565
Issue number7739
Pages (from-to)324-327
ISSN0028-0836
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: No match on DOI

ID: 168327427