Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a γ-ray burst

L. Izzo*, A. de Ugarte Postigo, K. Maeda, C. C. Thöne, D. A. Kann, M. Della Valle, A. Sagues Carracedo, M. J. Michałowski, P. Schady, S. Schmidl, J. Selsing, R. L. C. Starling, A. Suzuki, K. Bensch, J. Bolmer, S. Campana, Z. Cano, S. Covino, J. P.U. Fynbo, D. H. Hartmann & 22 others K. E. Heintz, J. Hjorth, J. Japelj, K. Kamiński, L. Kaper, C. Kouveliotou, M. Krużyński, T. Kwiatkowski, G. Leloudas, A. J. Levan, D. B. Malesani, T. Michałowski, S. Piranomonte, G. Pugliese, A. Rossi, R. Sánchez-Ramírez, S. Schulze, D. Steeghs, N. R. Tanvir, K. Ulaczyk, S. D. Vergani, K. Wiersema

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Long γ-ray bursts are associated with energetic, broad-lined, stripped-envelope supernovae1,2 and as such mark the death of massive stars. The scarcity of such events nearby and the brightness of the γ-ray burst afterglow, which dominates the emission in the first few days after the burst, have so far prevented the study of the very early evolution of supernovae associated with γ-ray bursts3. In hydrogen-stripped supernovae that are not associated with γ-ray bursts, an excess of high-velocity (roughly 30,000 kilometres per second) material has been interpreted as a signature of a choked jet, which did not emerge from the progenitor star and instead deposited all of its energy in a thermal cocoon4. Here we report multi-epoch spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN 2017iuk, which is associated with the γ-ray burst GRB 171205A. Our spectra display features at extremely high expansion velocities (around 115,000 kilometres per second) within the first day after the burst5,6. Using spectral synthesis models developed for SN 2017iuk, we show that these features are characterized by chemical abundances that differ from those observed in the ejecta of SN 2017iuk at later times. We further show that the high-velocity features originate from the mildly relativistic hot cocoon that is generated by an ultra-relativistic jet within the γ-ray burst expanding and decelerating into the medium that surrounds the progenitor star7,8. This cocoon rapidly becomes transparent9 and is outshone by the supernova emission, which starts to dominate the emission three days after the burst.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature
Volume565
Issue number7739
Pages (from-to)324-327
ISSN0028-0836
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this

Izzo, L., de Ugarte Postigo, A., Maeda, K., Thöne, C. C., Kann, D. A., Della Valle, M., ... Wiersema, K. (2019). Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a γ-ray burst. Nature, 565(7739), 324-327. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0826-3
Izzo, L. ; de Ugarte Postigo, A. ; Maeda, K. ; Thöne, C. C. ; Kann, D. A. ; Della Valle, M. ; Sagues Carracedo, A. ; Michałowski, M. J. ; Schady, P. ; Schmidl, S. ; Selsing, J. ; Starling, R. L. C. ; Suzuki, A. ; Bensch, K. ; Bolmer, J. ; Campana, S. ; Cano, Z. ; Covino, S. ; Fynbo, J. P.U. ; Hartmann, D. H. ; Heintz, K. E. ; Hjorth, J. ; Japelj, J. ; Kamiński, K. ; Kaper, L. ; Kouveliotou, C. ; Krużyński, M. ; Kwiatkowski, T. ; Leloudas, G. ; Levan, A. J. ; Malesani, D. B. ; Michałowski, T. ; Piranomonte, S. ; Pugliese, G. ; Rossi, A. ; Sánchez-Ramírez, R. ; Schulze, S. ; Steeghs, D. ; Tanvir, N. R. ; Ulaczyk, K. ; Vergani, S. D. ; Wiersema, K. / Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a γ-ray burst. In: Nature. 2019 ; Vol. 565, No. 7739. pp. 324-327.
@article{350b1576be7f429d809cd7db1c71f704,
title = "Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a γ-ray burst",
abstract = "Long γ-ray bursts are associated with energetic, broad-lined, stripped-envelope supernovae1,2 and as such mark the death of massive stars. The scarcity of such events nearby and the brightness of the γ-ray burst afterglow, which dominates the emission in the first few days after the burst, have so far prevented the study of the very early evolution of supernovae associated with γ-ray bursts3. In hydrogen-stripped supernovae that are not associated with γ-ray bursts, an excess of high-velocity (roughly 30,000 kilometres per second) material has been interpreted as a signature of a choked jet, which did not emerge from the progenitor star and instead deposited all of its energy in a thermal cocoon4. Here we report multi-epoch spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN 2017iuk, which is associated with the γ-ray burst GRB 171205A. Our spectra display features at extremely high expansion velocities (around 115,000 kilometres per second) within the first day after the burst5,6. Using spectral synthesis models developed for SN 2017iuk, we show that these features are characterized by chemical abundances that differ from those observed in the ejecta of SN 2017iuk at later times. We further show that the high-velocity features originate from the mildly relativistic hot cocoon that is generated by an ultra-relativistic jet within the γ-ray burst expanding and decelerating into the medium that surrounds the progenitor star7,8. This cocoon rapidly becomes transparent9 and is outshone by the supernova emission, which starts to dominate the emission three days after the burst.",
author = "L. Izzo and {de Ugarte Postigo}, A. and K. Maeda and Th{\"o}ne, {C. C.} and Kann, {D. A.} and {Della Valle}, M. and {Sagues Carracedo}, A. and Michałowski, {M. J.} and P. Schady and S. Schmidl and J. Selsing and Starling, {R. L. C.} and A. Suzuki and K. Bensch and J. Bolmer and S. Campana and Z. Cano and S. Covino and Fynbo, {J. P.U.} and Hartmann, {D. H.} and Heintz, {K. E.} and J. Hjorth and J. Japelj and K. Kamiński and L. Kaper and C. Kouveliotou and M. Krużyński and T. Kwiatkowski and G. Leloudas and Levan, {A. J.} and Malesani, {D. B.} and T. Michałowski and S. Piranomonte and G. Pugliese and A. Rossi and R. S{\'a}nchez-Ram{\'i}rez and S. Schulze and D. Steeghs and Tanvir, {N. R.} and K. Ulaczyk and Vergani, {S. D.} and K. Wiersema",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1038/s41586-018-0826-3",
language = "English",
volume = "565",
pages = "324--327",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7739",

}

Izzo, L, de Ugarte Postigo, A, Maeda, K, Thöne, CC, Kann, DA, Della Valle, M, Sagues Carracedo, A, Michałowski, MJ, Schady, P, Schmidl, S, Selsing, J, Starling, RLC, Suzuki, A, Bensch, K, Bolmer, J, Campana, S, Cano, Z, Covino, S, Fynbo, JPU, Hartmann, DH, Heintz, KE, Hjorth, J, Japelj, J, Kamiński, K, Kaper, L, Kouveliotou, C, Krużyński, M, Kwiatkowski, T, Leloudas, G, Levan, AJ, Malesani, DB, Michałowski, T, Piranomonte, S, Pugliese, G, Rossi, A, Sánchez-Ramírez, R, Schulze, S, Steeghs, D, Tanvir, NR, Ulaczyk, K, Vergani, SD & Wiersema, K 2019, 'Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a γ-ray burst', Nature, vol. 565, no. 7739, pp. 324-327. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0826-3

Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a γ-ray burst. / Izzo, L.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Maeda, K.; Thöne, C. C.; Kann, D. A.; Della Valle, M.; Sagues Carracedo, A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Schady, P.; Schmidl, S.; Selsing, J.; Starling, R. L. C.; Suzuki, A.; Bensch, K.; Bolmer, J.; Campana, S.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; Fynbo, J. P.U.; Hartmann, D. H.; Heintz, K. E.; Hjorth, J.; Japelj, J.; Kamiński, K.; Kaper, L.; Kouveliotou, C.; Krużyński, M.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Leloudas, G.; Levan, A. J.; Malesani, D. B.; Michałowski, T.; Piranomonte, S.; Pugliese, G.; Rossi, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Schulze, S.; Steeghs, D.; Tanvir, N. R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Vergani, S. D.; Wiersema, K.

In: Nature, Vol. 565, No. 7739, 2019, p. 324-327.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a γ-ray burst

AU - Izzo, L.

AU - de Ugarte Postigo, A.

AU - Maeda, K.

AU - Thöne, C. C.

AU - Kann, D. A.

AU - Della Valle, M.

AU - Sagues Carracedo, A.

AU - Michałowski, M. J.

AU - Schady, P.

AU - Schmidl, S.

AU - Selsing, J.

AU - Starling, R. L. C.

AU - Suzuki, A.

AU - Bensch, K.

AU - Bolmer, J.

AU - Campana, S.

AU - Cano, Z.

AU - Covino, S.

AU - Fynbo, J. P.U.

AU - Hartmann, D. H.

AU - Heintz, K. E.

AU - Hjorth, J.

AU - Japelj, J.

AU - Kamiński, K.

AU - Kaper, L.

AU - Kouveliotou, C.

AU - Krużyński, M.

AU - Kwiatkowski, T.

AU - Leloudas, G.

AU - Levan, A. J.

AU - Malesani, D. B.

AU - Michałowski, T.

AU - Piranomonte, S.

AU - Pugliese, G.

AU - Rossi, A.

AU - Sánchez-Ramírez, R.

AU - Schulze, S.

AU - Steeghs, D.

AU - Tanvir, N. R.

AU - Ulaczyk, K.

AU - Vergani, S. D.

AU - Wiersema, K.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Long γ-ray bursts are associated with energetic, broad-lined, stripped-envelope supernovae1,2 and as such mark the death of massive stars. The scarcity of such events nearby and the brightness of the γ-ray burst afterglow, which dominates the emission in the first few days after the burst, have so far prevented the study of the very early evolution of supernovae associated with γ-ray bursts3. In hydrogen-stripped supernovae that are not associated with γ-ray bursts, an excess of high-velocity (roughly 30,000 kilometres per second) material has been interpreted as a signature of a choked jet, which did not emerge from the progenitor star and instead deposited all of its energy in a thermal cocoon4. Here we report multi-epoch spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN 2017iuk, which is associated with the γ-ray burst GRB 171205A. Our spectra display features at extremely high expansion velocities (around 115,000 kilometres per second) within the first day after the burst5,6. Using spectral synthesis models developed for SN 2017iuk, we show that these features are characterized by chemical abundances that differ from those observed in the ejecta of SN 2017iuk at later times. We further show that the high-velocity features originate from the mildly relativistic hot cocoon that is generated by an ultra-relativistic jet within the γ-ray burst expanding and decelerating into the medium that surrounds the progenitor star7,8. This cocoon rapidly becomes transparent9 and is outshone by the supernova emission, which starts to dominate the emission three days after the burst.

AB - Long γ-ray bursts are associated with energetic, broad-lined, stripped-envelope supernovae1,2 and as such mark the death of massive stars. The scarcity of such events nearby and the brightness of the γ-ray burst afterglow, which dominates the emission in the first few days after the burst, have so far prevented the study of the very early evolution of supernovae associated with γ-ray bursts3. In hydrogen-stripped supernovae that are not associated with γ-ray bursts, an excess of high-velocity (roughly 30,000 kilometres per second) material has been interpreted as a signature of a choked jet, which did not emerge from the progenitor star and instead deposited all of its energy in a thermal cocoon4. Here we report multi-epoch spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN 2017iuk, which is associated with the γ-ray burst GRB 171205A. Our spectra display features at extremely high expansion velocities (around 115,000 kilometres per second) within the first day after the burst5,6. Using spectral synthesis models developed for SN 2017iuk, we show that these features are characterized by chemical abundances that differ from those observed in the ejecta of SN 2017iuk at later times. We further show that the high-velocity features originate from the mildly relativistic hot cocoon that is generated by an ultra-relativistic jet within the γ-ray burst expanding and decelerating into the medium that surrounds the progenitor star7,8. This cocoon rapidly becomes transparent9 and is outshone by the supernova emission, which starts to dominate the emission three days after the burst.

U2 - 10.1038/s41586-018-0826-3

DO - 10.1038/s41586-018-0826-3

M3 - Letter

VL - 565

SP - 324

EP - 327

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7739

ER -

Izzo L, de Ugarte Postigo A, Maeda K, Thöne CC, Kann DA, Della Valle M et al. Signatures of a jet cocoon in early spectra of a supernova associated with a γ-ray burst. Nature. 2019;565(7739):324-327. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0826-3