Signal Processing using Nonlinear Optical Eects in Single- and Few-Mode Fibers

Søren Michael Mørk Friis

Research output: Book/ReportPh.D. thesis

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The stagnating increase in data transmission capacity in optical communication systems combined with the ever growing demand of transmission bandwidth is leading to an impending capacity crunch, referring to the point in time after which the available bandwidth of the individual user starts to decrease. To postpone this point in time, existing technologies in terms of data transmission through optical fibers must be optimized and new degrees of freedom must be introduced to continue the exponential increase in available bandwidth; space-division multiplexing is believed to be the strongest candidate for another degree of freedom in transmission fibers. This thesis is two-fold: firstly, starting at Maxwell’s equations and basic principles of quantum mechanics, a semi-classical model of the noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers and frequency converters is presented. The model accounts for multiple effects present in nonlinear fibers such as four-wave mixing, Raman scattering, distributed loss, and dispersion, and it is valid in the depleted pump regime. After validating the model against well-known results of quantum models, the model is used to predict the impacts of Raman noise, loss, and pump depletion on the noise properties of parametric frequency conversion and phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive parametric amplification. An important part of realizing space-division multiplexing is the ability of optical signal processing so the second part of this thesis addresses few-mode Raman fiber amplifiers and parametric amplifiers and frequency converters. A model of weak random linear mode coupling in the pump of a two-mode distributed Raman fiber amplifier is presented and it is shown that an amplification noise figure induced by mode coupling increases with the degree of mode coupling and that this tendency increases as the pump depletes. Also, a very low mode-dependent gain of 0.25 dB per 10 dB gain is experimentally demonstrated in a two-mode distributed Raman fiber amplifier by exciting the pump in a combination of two modes. A comprehensive model of four-wave mixing in two-mode fibers acvi counting for six simultaneous processes is derived, and the conversion efficiency from signal to idler in the four-wave mixing processes of phase conjugation and Bragg scattering in two two-mode fibers with different phase matching properties are experimentally investigated. A conversion efficiency of > −2.70 dB is demonstrated for Bragg scattering in the conversion of a signal in the LP01-mode to the idler in the LP11-mode; the signal-to-idler separation is ∼ 25 nm. Good qualitative agreement between experiments and theory is found for both processes in both fibers.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherDTU Fotonik
Number of pages146
Publication statusPublished - 2016


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